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KOBİ’lerde E-Ticaret Kullanımına Yönelik Bir Araştırma: OSTİM Örneği

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Author(s): Burcu TÜRKMEN | Neşe SONGÜR

Journal: Selcuk Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitusu Dergisi
ISSN 1302-1796

Issue: 23;
Start page: 232;
Date: 2010;
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Keywords: SME | OSTİM | e-commerce | competition | international market

ABSTRACT
Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) play very important role not only in economical life but also in social life bytheir adaptive structures that can occur in changes and innovations. SMEs contribute to the economy by both producing the finalproduct and producing goods for large enterprises. During the changing competitive conditions, enterprises have to follow thedeveloping technologies and improvements in order to remain standing. Electronic commerce, which can be defined as theimplementation of enterprise activities in electronically medium, give opportunities to the enterprises, especially to the SMEs, infinding new markets and competing with the others. In competitive conditions, the importance given to the use of electroniccommerce is on the rise. The use of electronic commerce is inevitable also for SMEs willing to obtain a competitive advantage inthe international markets and to follow technological developments. In this context, status of electronic commerce usage andperspectives of SMEs operating in OSTİM which is one of the largest industrial site of our country is investigated. Questionnaireis used to gather the necessary data for this research. In this research, SMEs doing/not doing e-commerce status, reasons not todo e-commerce, thinking situations about doing e-commerce of enterprises not using e-commerce; period of doing e-commerce,e-commerce application forms, activities within e-commerce, reasons to do e-commerce and problems faced doing e-commerceof enterprises using e-commerce is investigated. 1400 of the enterprises operating in OSTİM which have web sites are adopted asthe population of the research. According to this population; the sample size is calculated as 300 enterprises with 95% confidencelimit and 5% margin of error. 300 questionnaires are applied to randomly selected enterprises. Data was collected in two wayssuch as distributing and recollecting the survey forms by hand to businesses and via email. A total number of 269 surveys forms,225 of which was distributed by hand and 49 of which were sent via electronic mail, were taken back and evaluated in the contextof this research. Rate of reaching target sample size is 89.7%. It is determined that 24.9% of the 269 surveyed enterprises useelectronic commerce and 75.1% of them do not use electronic commerce. First three reasons of the enterprises which do not usee-commerce are; e-commerce is not a widely used form of trade in their sector, lack of technical infrastructure and securityproblems. 45% of enterprises which do not use e-commerce are willing to take part in e-commerce applications within the upcoming years. However, 40% of them constantly stay away from the e-commerce business. So the rate of e-commerce willingnessin a sort period time is 14.9%. In accordance of these data the amount of e-commerce willingness among the companies arerather low whereas the rate of e-commerce willingness is much higher than the resistance to e-commerce. In other wordscompanies do not have any tendency to take part in e-commerce applications in short term. In addition to this more than one third of them do not want to deal with this business branch, either. In brief this situation is a real deficiency among the densecompetitiveness of SMEs, since e-commerce is a real opportunity to spread the market world wide. Besides, those companies arenot aware of the advantages of e-commerce applications and running a world wide business. The ones which apply the ecommercebusiness are claimed to run the applications in 53.7% from enterprise to enterprise, 41.8% from enterprise tocustomer. The rate of e-commerce business via Private Sector to Public Sector or vice a versa is 4.5%. This gathered data statethat the e-commerce applications are becoming dense among enterprises to enterprises rather than the other options. First threereasons of the enterprises which use e-commerce are; to reach new markets, to increase sales of the enterprise and to increase thecompetitive power of enterprise. In the context of electronic commerce activities, enterprises mostly do presentation of products,taking orders and making sales. SMEs indicated the most important problems they faced during electronic commerce as electroniccommerce is not preferred by the customers due to security reasons, insufficient benefit of the enterprise from electroniccommerce due to lack of technical infrastructure, lack of training on electronic commerce and unwillingness of businesscustomers to buy a product that they do not see visually.In accordance of the gathered data from the survey can be said that SMEs are partially aware of the e-commerce applicationsand the SMEs are not enough willing to use e-commerce applications. The reasons why enterprises do not use e-commerce arealikely parallel to the enterprises which come across with the conflicts while using the e-commerce applications. While comparingand contrasting the gathered data, the disseminating obstacles towards the development of e-commerce are as follows: electroniccommerce is not preferred by the customers due to security reasons, it is not commonly used in the sector, lack of technicalinfrastructure and training needs on the issue. Security problems due to operations made via internet have been started to besolved due to the recent developments in technology. At this point, important thing is that the SMEs should be informed andtheir trust levels should be enhanced. The issue of training needs on e-commerce which were also stated by the respondents ofthe study shows that key point is “training”. At this point, the use of electronic commerce should be expanded at SMEs byproviding relevant informative training about the subject to the SMEs, encouraging SMEs by showing successful examples aboutthe use of electronic commerce and with the arrangements and trainings. However, taking into consideration the problems of ecommerce,it can be seen that it has also technical and legal size. In addition, enterprise owners and managers should increase thelevel of enterprises’ technology usage. As a result, only by doing one’s part by all parties consisting of state, institutions andorganizations offering services to SMEs and enterprise owners, the use of electronic commerce in SMEs can be spread widely andit can be provided for SMEs to take part in the international market.
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