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Kriz Döneminde Transformasyonel Lider Davranişlarinin Işletme Performansi Bağlaminda Firsat Yönetimine Etkisi: Bankacilik Sektöründe Bir Uygulama

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Author(s): Burcu DOĞANALP

Journal: Selcuk Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitusu Dergisi
ISSN 1302-1796

Issue: 22;
Start page: 131;
Date: 2009;
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Keywords: Crisis Period | Crisis Management | Opportunity Management | Leadership | Transformational Leadership | Business

ABSTRACT
Regardless of the size of enterprises, employees have to understand the reason of why the crisis are a part of today’s worldand if any what to do to reduce the effects. In every day context, the term crisis is used to refer to “an unstable situation ofextreme danger or difficulty” or a condition/ situation requiring urgent action or attention. In organizational context, crisis hasbeen defined as a tense situation threatening the continuity of the enterprise, making risk preventive actions insufficient, requiringurgent reaction, effecting the planning and deciding mechanisms negatively and making nonsense of daily practices. Perceivednegatively as a tension situation that threaten the continuity and goals of the enterprises, the crisis can be a turning pointproviding for opportunities at the same time owing to the fact that it is a process when there is an increased focus on profitability;customer, quality, innovativeness; organizational problems appear; restructuring becomes easier; the importance of the job andteamwork increase; executive staff and employees become closer and the costs decrease.The achievement of the enterprises is mainly a positive function of assessing the constraints and facilities that theirenvironment creates. The enterprises can survive by developing initial flexibility behavior. It is important to come throughdisclaim and shock periods and focus on the opportunities as early as possible. They require an immediate response, as well ascoordinated application of resources, facilities, and efforts beyond those regularly available to handle routine problems. In thiscontext, the manpower is the most important resource that manages the crisis and transforms it into opportunities. The necessityof developing urgent reaction in the crisis period highlights the leaders making quick and right decisions. In the crisis period aneffective leadership without overlooking opportunities that may occur and by reaping benefits from them can make workersadhere the organizational targets and make the enterprises more powerful after this period. The enterprises harboring creativemanagers are the luckiest ones.Today, the chaos philosophers accept the existence of the limited stability and uncertainty, and irregularity increase thenecessity of management. The enterprises in the new economy focus on personal development, innovativeness and change ratherthan before. And the new economy has differentiated the meaning of the conventional manager. In this context, theorganizational leadership can be defined as “the process of creating a vision for the enterprise which accommodates to the changeand achieve innovativeness, making all of the workers adopt this vision, and institutionalizing the changes vision-oriented. As aconsequence, there are new managerial skills sticking out. These are: focusing on diversity, creating cooperation and synergy creating an environment enabling development of the workers, taking into account variable and parameters, searchinginformation, conceptual flexibility, entrepreneurship, managing change and being creative.In the new economy that is direct, digital, molecular and innovative, it is very difficult to compete without a workforce andthe cooperation of them. In other words, the transition from the manager who is able to answer all of the questions to themanager who trusts to his personnel, develop, and empower them is the case. Moreover the manager style of the new century isnot a person standing out with his physical characteristics and vocational knowledge. He is a person that seeks and assesses theopportunities of the new century and resolves the threats. Also it is important to build ways of organizational learning for the newworking class of the new economy: the knowledge worker, induce self-control, and empower by governance. Academic leadershipis seen as today’s ascendant leadership model, because the whole-of-life learning is his life pattern, he makes his workers be activein the planning and coordination of the learning process and leads them about translating their learning efforts into the operationin accordance with the objectives of the enterprise.The idea of transformational leadership been introduced by Burns (1978) and Bass (1985) is the consequence of theleadership mechanism efforts on accommodating the conditions of the new economy and it gained in popularity among practicersand researchers. The transformational leadership is characterized as the ability of the leader on articulating for a shared vision,stimulating the workers intellectually, and monitoring the differences of the workers.The global competition requires the leaders, who are intellectual stimulators, inspiring, future-oriented, and that knows theauthorization of his workers, charges them in appropriate works and strengthen them and able to cope with the complexity. All ofthese characteristics indicate transformational leadership of whose components are formulized by Bass and Avolio as charisma,individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, idealized influence. According to Burns,transformational leadership is a process in which "leaders and followers help each other to advance to a higher level of morale andmotivation".In the theoretical framework of the study, the conditions of being successful of transformational leadership regarded as apost-modernism leadership approach in the literature and its influence on business performance in the crisis period will beexplained by means of its qualifications. The application part of the study gives information about the opinions of bank workersin Konya related to the manner of their senior management and especially to the positive results of the crisis period, how theyperceive the applied policies and operations of their senior management and in this context, of which manners the seniormanagement influence the business performance affirmatively in the crisis period.Because of having a vision and an ability of inspiring the followers and being a long-term planner, the researches indicate thenecessity of transformational leadership in the change period when it is important to shape the future. Because of thecharacteristics of him mentioned (inspiring the followers, believing in the potential of them, being intelligent about coping withthe complexity and having an effective vision) the transformational leaders are able to create value by making his followers workmore. The transformational leaders in the crisis period, makes transformation with charisma, individualized consideration,intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, and idealized influence. The very important point in terms of the study whichmust be emphasized is that the transformational leadership is more effective in the crisis periods. Consequently, in the context ofthe study it is emphasized that the transformational leadership has a positive and radical effect on the organizational performance

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