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Laparoscopic Management of Adrenal Lesions Larger Than 5 cm in Diameter

Author(s): Rajan Sharma | Arvind Ganpule | Muthu Veeramani | Ravindra B Sabnis | Mahesh Desai

Journal: Urology Journal
ISSN 1735-1308

Volume: 6;
Issue: 4;
Start page: 254;
Date: 2009;
Original page

Introduction: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy remains a controversial procedure for large tumors. The incidence of adrenocortical carcinoma increases and technical difficulty of adrenalectomy increases as the size increases. We examined the outcome and complications of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for such lesions. Materials and Methods: Twenty-nine patients underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy, of whom 19 had tumors larger than 5 cm in diameter, having a median tumor size of 7.0 cm. They were compared with patients whose adrenal tumors were smaller than 5 cm. Results: Patients with small tumors (< 5 cm) had a significantly shorter median operative time of 90 minutes as compared to 145 minutes in those with large tumors (> 5 cm). There was no significant difference in the median hemoglobin drop (1.05 g/dL versus 1.30 g/dL), time for starting oral intake (24 hours in both groups) or hospital stay (3.5 days versus 4.0 days) between patients with small and large tumors, respectively. There were no intra-operative complications except for 1 incidence of supraventricular tachycardia in a patient with a large pheochromocytoma. There were no major complications seen in any of the patients and no open conversions. Histopathology of large tumors revealed 16 benign tumors (8 pheochromocytomas, 4 adenomas, 2 ganglioneuromas, 1 pseudocyst, and 1 myelolipoma) and 3 malignancies, of which 1 was primary adrenocortical carcinoma and 2 were metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Conclusion: In experienced hands, laparoscopic adrenalectomy is safe and feasible for large functioning adrenal tumors. Large adrenal tumors suspicious of harboring malignancy with no peri-adrenal involvement can be tackled laparoscopically.
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