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Les vagues dans les retenues d’altitudes : analyse et méthodes pour la prévention Water waves in mountainous lakes: analysis and methods for prevention

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Author(s): Mohamed Naaim, Gérard Degoutte et François Delorme

Journal: Sciences Eaux & Territoires : la Revue du IRSTEA
ISSN 2109-3016

Volume: 2010;
Issue: 02;
Start page: 102;
Date: 2010;
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Keywords: RETENUE | ALTITUDE | PREVENTION | VENT | PROTECTION

ABSTRACT
Édifiées dans les stations de loisirs de montagne pour la production de neige de culture, les retenues d'altitude, comme tout ouvrage hydraulique, sont soumises aux aléas météorologiques qui peuvent générer des risques pour la sécurité publique. Les auteurs s'intéressent ici aux conséquences des vagues provoquées par le vent et les mouvements gravitaires rapides sur de tels ouvrages et étudient les moyens de protection à mettre en place.The load of the wind and the impact of rapid mass movements in a reservoir generate waves whose nature and properties depend on the magnitude of the load and the water depth in the reservoir. In this paper we summarized the main existing scaling laws allowing assessing the resulting hydrodynamic effects, focusing not only on the amplitude of the waves, but also on its nature. The wind and the slow movements produce sinusoidal waves while rapid mass movements produce steeper water waves such as tsunamis. Given the limited extension of the mountain lakes, the produced water waves rapidly meet the shores or the dam on which they generate a run-up whose amplitude depends on the characteristics of the incident wave and the slope of the shore. We have undertaken a theoretical analysis and collected several experimental data in order to show the similarities and the differences between the sinusoidal waves and the solitary waves in terms of run-up. We finally, choose simple formulas and produced a chart enabling any engineer to make a first diagnosis.
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