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Malaria and other vector-borne infection surveillance in the U.S. Department of Defense Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center-Global Emerging Infections Surveillance program: review of 2009 accomplishments

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Author(s): Fukuda Mark | Klein Terry | Kochel Tadeusz | Quandelacy Talia | Smith Bryan | Villinski Jeff | Bethell Delia | Tyner Stuart | Se Youry | Lon Chanthap | Saunders David | Johnson Jacob | Wagar Eric | Walsh Douglas | Kasper Matthew | Sanchez Jose | Witt Clara | Cheng Qin | Waters Norman | Shrestha Sanjaya | Pavlin Julie | Lescano Andres | Graf Paul | Richardson Jason | Durand Salomon | Rogers William | Blazes David | Russell Kevin

Journal: BMC Public Health
ISSN 1471-2458

Volume: 11;
Issue: Suppl 2;
Start page: S9;
Date: 2011;
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ABSTRACT
Abstract Vector-borne infections (VBI) are defined as infectious diseases transmitted by the bite or mechanical transfer of arthropod vectors. They constitute a significant proportion of the global infectious disease burden. United States (U.S.) Department of Defense (DoD) personnel are especially vulnerable to VBIs due to occupational contact with arthropod vectors, immunological naiveté to previously unencountered pathogens, and limited diagnostic and treatment options available in the austere and unstable environments sometimes associated with military operations. In addition to the risk uniquely encountered by military populations, other factors have driven the worldwide emergence of VBIs. Unprecedented levels of global travel, tourism and trade, and blurred lines of demarcation between zoonotic VBI reservoirs and human populations increase vector exposure. Urban growth in previously undeveloped regions and perturbations in global weather patterns also contribute to the rise of VBIs. The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center-Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) and its partners at DoD overseas laboratories form a network to better characterize the nature, emergence and growth of VBIs globally. In 2009 the network tested 19,730 specimens from 25 sites for Plasmodium species and malaria drug resistance phenotypes and nearly another 10,000 samples to determine the etiologies of non-Plasmodium species VBIs from regions spanning from Oceania to Africa, South America, and northeast, south and Southeast Asia. This review describes recent VBI-related epidemiological studies conducted by AFHSC-GEIS partner laboratories within the OCONUS DoD laboratory network emphasizing their impact on human populations.
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