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Malnutrition as assessed by nutritional risk index is associated with worse outcome in patients admitted with acute decompensated heart failure. An ACAP-HF data analysis

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Author(s): Emad F. Aziz | Fahad Javed | Balaji Pratap | Dan Musat | Amjad Nader | Sandeep Pulimi | Carlos L. Alviar | Eyal Herzog | Marrick L. Kukin

Journal: Heart International
ISSN 1826-1868

Volume: 6;
Issue: 1;
Start page: e2;
Date: 2011;
Original page

Keywords: Heart Failure | Malnutrition | Nutrition Risk Index

ABSTRACT
Malnutrition is common at hospital admission and tends to worsen during hospitalization. This controlled population study aimed to determine if serum albumin or moderate and severe nutritional depletion by Nutritional Risk Index (NRI) at hospital admission are associated with increased length of hospital stay (LOS) in patients admitted with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Serum albumin levels and lymphocyte counts were retrospectively determined at hospital admission in 1740 consecutive patients admitted with primary and secondary diagnosis of ADHF. The Nutrition Risk Score (NRI) developed originally in AIDS and cancer populations was derived from the serum albumin concentration and the ratio of actual to usual weight, as follows: NRI = (1.519 × serum albumin, g/dL) + {41.7 × present weight (kg)/ideal body weight(kg)}. Patients were classified into four groups as no, mild, moderate or severe risk by NRI. Multiple logistic regressions were used to determine the association between nutritional risk category and LOS. 381 Patients (34%) were at moderate or severe nutritional risk by NRI score. This cohort had lower BMI (24 ± 5.6 kg/m2), albumin (2.8±0.5 g/dL), mean NRI (73.5±9) and Lower eGFR (50±33 mL/min per 1.73 m2). NRI for this cohort, adjusted for age, was associated with LOS of 10.1 days. Using the Multiple Logistic regression module, NRI was the strongest predictor for LOS (OR 1.7, 95% CI: 1.58-1.9; P=0.005), followed by TIMI Risk Score [TRS] (OR 1.33, 95% CI: 1.03-1.71; P=0.02) and the presence of coronary artery disease (OR 2.29, 95%CI: 1.03-5.1; P=0.04). Moderate and severe NRI score was associated with higher readmission and death rates as compared to the other two groups. Nutritional depletion as assessed by Nutritional Risk Index is associated with worse outcome in patients admitted with ADHF. Therefore; we recommend adding NRI to further risk stratify these patients.

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