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Mangiferin, an Anti-HIV-1 Agent Targeting Protease and Effective against Resistant Strains

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Author(s): Rui-Rui Wang | Yue-Dong Gao | Chun-Hui Ma | Xing-Jie Zhang | Cheng-Gang Huang | Jing-Fei Huang | Yong-Tang Zheng

Journal: Molecules
ISSN 1420-3049

Volume: 16;
Issue: 5;
Start page: 4264;
Date: 2011;
Original page

Keywords: mangiferin | HIV-1 | protease | anti-HIV agents | drug resistance

ABSTRACT
The anti-HIV-1 activity of mangiferin was evaluated. Mangiferin can inhibit HIV-1ⅢB induced syncytium formation at non-cytotoxic concentrations, with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) at 16.90 μM and a therapeutic index (TI) above 140. Mangiferin also showed good activities in other laboratory-derived strains, clinically isolated strains and resistant HIV-1 strains. Mechanism studies revealed that mangiferin might inhibit the HIV-1 protease, but is still effective against HIV peptidic protease inhibitor resistant strains. A combination of docking and pharmacophore methods clarified possible binding modes of mangiferin in the HIV-1 protease. The pharmacophore model of mangiferin consists of two hydrogen bond donors and two hydrogen bond acceptors. Compared to pharmacophore features found in commercially available drugs, three pharmacophoric elements matched well and one novel pharmacophore element was observed. Moreover, molecular docking analysis demonstrated that the pharmacophoric elements play important roles in binding HIV-1 protease. Mangiferin is a novel nonpeptidic protease inhibitor with an original structure that represents an effective drug development strategy for combating drug resistance.
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