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MASALAH PENDIDIKAN DI PRANCIS DALAM KARYA RABELAIS, MONTAIGNE DAN ROUSSEAU

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Author(s): Ida Sundari Husen

Journal: Makara Seri Sosial Humaniora
ISSN 1693-6701

Volume: 6;
Issue: 2;
Start page: 69;
Date: 2002;
Original page

Keywords: French master pieces’s educational issues

ABSTRACT
In the 16th., 17th. and 18th. century, the first ideas of educative reform in France appeared in litterary master pieces.Rabelais wrote his critics and proposals on child education in his stories Pantagruel (1532) and Gargantua (1534),developped later in the Essays (three volumes) written by Montaigne and in Rousseau’novel, Emile. Actually the sameideas were supported also by Descartes in Discours de la Méthode (1637) and Voltaire in L’Ingénu (1767). The centralissue was the opposition between the old system of education focusing on learning by heart and theories and the systemthey proposed which gave importance on the formation of the way of thinking, in a pleasant learning atmosphere, inrelation to real life and nature. Officially French education reform was started by the Minister of Education Jules Ferryin 1880 in the decrees proclaming compulsory education in the primary school, free of charge, and the separationbetween secular and religious education
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