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Maternal obesity and the development of skeletal muscle in offspring – fetal origin of metabolic disorders

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Author(s): Kamil Grabiec | Marta Milewska | Katarzyna Grzelkowska-Kowalczyk

Journal: Postępy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
ISSN 0032-5449

Volume: 66;
Issue: 855199;
Start page: 1;
Date: 2012;
Original page

Keywords: jądrowy czynnik NF-κB | matczyna otyłość | mięśnie szkieletowe | miogeneza płodowa | ścieżka sygnałowa AMPK | typy włókien mięśniowych | wielonienasycone kwasy tłuszczowe | Wnt/β-katenina

ABSTRACT
Suboptimal fetal environments due to inadequate maternal nutrition, obesity, inflammation or gestational diabetes expose the fetus to humoral cues that alter metabolism and growth parameters leading to metabolic disturbances later in life. The fetal stage is crucial for the development of skeletal muscle, a tissue playing an important role in metabolism. Maternal obesity induces inflammation in the fetus causing modifications in the development of fetal skeletal muscle. Changes in the normal course of myogenesis may arise through several mechanisms: changes in WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway, decreased AMPK activity evoked by TNF-α, increased activity of NF-κB in response to inflammation, which leads to a decrease in myogenic factor MyoD, and increased expression of TGF β1. Modification in fetal development associated with maternal obesity is attributed to epigenetic changes. Polyunsaturated fatty acids supplied in the diet did affect the development of insulin-sensitive tissues during both the fetal and postnatal period. The specific phenotype of skeletal muscle fibers may play a role in the development of obesity, i.e. fiber phenotype I (slow, oxidative) may protect against obesity and insulin resistance. Exploring the mechanisms of direct impact of maternal obesity on the development of tissues in the offspring may help to reduce the occurrence of metabolic diseases in later life.

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