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Measurement of Urinary Cadmium in Glazers Using Solid Phase Extraction Followed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy

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Author(s): Fateme Kargar | Seyed Jamaleddin Shahtaheri | Farideh Golbabaei | Abolfazle Barkhordari | Abbas Rahimi–Froushani

Journal: International Journal of Occupational Hygiene
ISSN 2008-5109

Volume: 4;
Issue: 2;
Start page: 11;
Date: 2012;
Original page

Keywords: Urine Cadmium | Ceramic Industry | Glaze | ICP-AES | Spirometry

ABSTRACT
Glazers are exposed to a variety of heavy metals in the ceramic industry, causing adverse effect on the body systems. Cadmium is one of the major raw materials for production of colored glazes. To evaluate occupational exposure to cadmium, spot urine samples were collected from 49 tile and pottery glazers in Yazd City in 2010 at the beginning and end of the work shift (98 samples). Totally, 55 office workers were also evaluated as control group. Samples were prepared using solid phase extraction followed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. All the participants filled out a self administered questionnaire comprises questions about work shift, kind of job, use of mask, ventilation,work history, overtime work, age, weight, and height. The lung function tests were performed in a standing position according to the American Thoracic Society recommendation on both control andcadmium exposed individuals. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to evaluate the data. The mean values of cadmium levels before and after shift in study group was 3.88 and 10.85 μg/gcreatinine,respectively. The mean values of cadmium levels at the end of the work shift in the glazers urine samples was almost 3.53 times higher than the control group and 2.17 times higher than the ACGIHbiological exposure indices (5 μg/g creatinine). In addition the lung functions of glazers was significantly lower than the office workers (p
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