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MECHANISMS OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF THE LEAF EXTRACT AND FRACTIONS OF MILLETTIA ABOENSIS

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Author(s): Ajaghaku Daniel Lotanna | Ilodigwe Emmanuel Emeka | Okonta Mathew Jegbefume | Ogbue Cyril Onyeka | Okafor Martha Adaobi | Igboeme Sabastin Obiora

Journal: International Research Journal of Pharmacy
ISSN 2230-8407

Volume: 4;
Issue: 9;
Start page: 54;
Date: 2013;
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Keywords: Millettia aboensis | Anti-inflammation | Paw edema | Arthritis | Leucocytes migration | Membrane stabilization.

ABSTRACT
The acute and chronic anti-inflammatory effect of the crude extracts and fractions of Millettia aboensis leaves, a popular Nigerian traditional anti-inflammation remedy and possible mechanism of effect was investigated. Phytochemical analysis of the crude and fraction revealed the presence of anti-inflammatory phyto-compounds – terpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and glycosides. No death was recorded from acute toxicity study. The crude and methanol fraction at 300 and 200 mg/kg showed significant (p < 0.05) inhibition of egg albumin induced paw edema. Effect of the extract and fraction on topical oedema induced by xylene on mouse ear revealed that methanol fraction at 5 mg/ear had the highest activity with percentage inhibition of 61.90 % compared to the 54.76 % inhibition produced by Indomethacin. Methanol fraction at 300 mg/kg produced a significant (p < 0.05) inhibition of formaldehyde induced arthritis with percentage inhibition of 40.93 %. Result of the ulcergenic effect in rat demonstrated that both the crude and methanol fraction possess ulcergenic effect though lower than that produced by Indomethacin. Methanol fraction at 400 mg/kg also produced significant (p < 0.05) inhibition of leucocytes migration compared with the control. Both extract and methanol fraction produced stabilization effect on the heat-induced and hypotonicity induced red blood cell haemolysis. These results suggest that the ethanol leaf extract of M. aboensis possess acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity that is most active in the methanol fraction. The activity may be as a result of combined inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, leukocyte migration and membrane stabilization effect.
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