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Mechanisms of quinolone resistance and implications for human and animal health

Author(s): Velhner Maja | Kozoderović Gordana | Jelesić Zora | Stojanov Igor | Ratajac Radomir | Stojanović Dragica

Journal: Veterinarski Glasnik
ISSN 0350-2457

Volume: 64;
Issue: 3-4;
Start page: 277;
Date: 2010;
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Keywords: quinolone | resistance | GyrA | QRDR | PMQR | qnr | MIC

Quinolone antibiotics have been widely used in human and veterinary medicine. This has caused the development of resistance and difficulties in the treatment of complicated bacterial infections in humans. The resistance to quinolones develops due to chromosome mutations and it can also be transferred by plasmids. The target enzyme for quinolones in Gram-negative bacteria is Gyrasa A, while the target enzyme in Grampositive bacteria is mostly topoisomerase IV. Gyrase A consists of two subunits encoded by genes gyrA and gyrB. The function of the enzyme is to introduce negative super coiling in DNA and therefore is essential for the replication of bacteria. Quinolone resistance develops if point mutations at 83 and/or 87 codon are introduced on gyrA. Establishing a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) to this group of antimicrobials will reveal possible mutations. Recently it was discovered that quinolone resistance is transmittable by plasmid termed PMQR (plasmid mediated quinolone resistance). The target gene marked qnr encodes a pentapeptide repeat family protein. Pentapeptide repeats form sheets, involved in protein-protein interactions. Qnr protein binds to GyrA protecting the enzyme from the inhibitory effect of ciprofloxacin. The distribution of qnr related resistance is higher in humans than in animals. In poultry, however, this type of resistance is present more than in other animals. Plasmid mediated resistance contributes to the faster spread of quinolone resistance. Proper food handling will significantly contribute to decreasing the risk from infection to which people are exposed. In medical and veterinary laboratories antimicrobial resistance monitoring in clinical and environmental isolates is advised. Since correlation between antibiotics application and antimicrobial resistance is often suggested, antimicrobial use must be under strict control of the authorities both in human and in veterinary medicine. .
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