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Metabolism of biogenic amines in acute cerebral ischemia: Influence of systemic hyperglycemia

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Author(s): Milovanović Aleksandar | Milovanović J. | Milovanović Anđela | Konstatinović Ljubica | Petrović M. | Kekuš Divna | Petronijević-Vrzić Svetlana | Artiko Vera

Journal: Acta Veterinaria
ISSN 0567-8315

Volume: 62;
Issue: 4;
Start page: 385;
Date: 2012;
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Keywords: acute ischaemia | biogenic amines | systemic hyperglycaemia

ABSTRACT
Dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin are biogenic amines which are transmitters of the central nervous system. The effects of ischemia on the brain parenchyma depends on many factors, such is the mechanism of blood flow interruption, velocity of the occurring blood flow interruption, duration of an ischemic episode, organization of anatomical structures of the brain blood vessels etc., which all influence the final outcome. During interruption of the brain circulation in experimental or clinical conditions, neurotransmitter metabolism, primarily of biogenic amines, is disturbed. Many researches with various experimental models of complete ischemia reported a decrease in the content of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin in the CNS tissue. It was proven that hyperglycemia can drastically increase cerebral injury followed by short-term cerebral ischemia. Considering the fact that biogenic amines (dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin) influence the size of neurologic damage, as well as the fact that in hyperglycemic conditions infarct size (from the morphological aspect) is larger relative to normoglycemic status, the intention was to evaluate the role of biogenic amines in occurrence of damage in conditions of hyperglycemia, i.e. in the case of brain apoplexia in diabetics. Analysis of biogenic amines metabolism in states of acute hyperglycemia, as well as analysis of the effects of reversible and irreversible brain ischemia on metabolism of serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine, showed that acute hyperglycemia slows down serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine metabolism in the cerebral cortex and n. caudatus. Brain ischemia in normoglycemic animals by itself has no influence on biogenic amines metabolism, but the effect of ischemia becomes apparent during reperfusion. In recirculation, which corresponds to the occurrences in penumbra, release of biogenic amines is uncontrolled and increased. Brain ischemia in acute hyperglycemic animals increases the release of biogenic amines regardless of ischemia duration (5 or 15 minutes). This effect is more apparent during recirculation. Acute hyperglycemia makes brain tissue more sensitive even to ischemia which last shorter, i.e. reversible ischemia.
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