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Microgeographical patterns of schistosomiasis and water contact behavior; examples from Africa and Brazil

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Author(s): Kloos Helmut | Gazzinelli Andréa | Van Zuyle Paul

Journal: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
ISSN 0074-0276

Volume: 93;
Issue: suppl.1;
Start page: 37;
Date: 1998;
Original page

Keywords: schistosomiasis | water contact behavior | geographical aspects | Brazil | Egypt | Kenya

ABSTRACT
This paper examines the results of spatial (microgeographical) water contact/schistosomiasis studies in two African (Egyptian and Kenyan) and one Brazilian communities. All three studies used traditional cartographic and statistical methods but one of them emploeyd also GIS (geographical information systems) tools. The advantage of GIS and their potential role in schistosomiasis control are briefly described. The three cases revealed considerable variation in the spatial distribution of water contact, transmission parameters and infection levels at the household and individual levels. All studies showed considerable variation in the prevalence and intensity of infection between households. They also show a variable influence of distance on water contact behavior associated with type of activity, age, sex, socioeconomic level, perception of water quality, season and availability of water in the home. Water contact behavior and schistosomiasis were evaluated in the Brazilian village of Nova União within the context of water sharing between household and age/sex groups. Recommendations are made for further spatial studies on the transmission and control of schistosomiasis.
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