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Morphological and physiological features of the species Asimina triloba (L.) dunal, introduced as an ornamental plant in Baia Mare (Maramureş county, Romania)

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Author(s): Beatrice SZILAGYI | Monica MARIAN

Journal: Analele Universitatii din Oradea, Fascicula Biologie
ISSN 1224-5119

Volume: TOM XVIII;
Issue: 2;
Start page: 168;
Date: 2011;
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Keywords: Asimina triloba | physiological features | photosynthesis intensity | ornamental value

ABSTRACT
Tree species Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal, is native to North America. In the area of origin is cultivated, both as food species because the edible fruit, and as ornamental species. Ornamental value derives both from decorative flowers, that open in early spring, and because habitus species. The species is demanding from slightly acidic soils (pH 5.5 to 7.0) and well drained. Seedlings are susceptible to heatstroke and need areas of the sun, but since the second year, vegetate well in bright light conditions [27]. Optimum climate is temperate to subtropical one. The species exhibits unique quality traits for a temperate fruit that are similar to other fruit in the Annonaceae family, including cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.), sugar apple or sweetsop, (A. squamosa L.), soursop (A. muricata L.), custard apple (A. reticulata L.), and atemoya (A. squamosa X A. cherimola), all of which are tropical [2].This study follows the behavior of the species, in particular conditions of the Baia Mare and its surroundings. In this area a fewindividuals were introduced, in order to diversigy the range of species of ornamental plants. In Baia Mare, topoclimate is specifically depression, sheltered by mountains, more atenuated as temperature and winds, than in surrounding areas. As a result ofclimatic conditions, chestnut Castanea sativa, grows in good conditions in Baia Mare. Instead, the area is heavily polluted,especially at ground level. Pollution by heavy metals is a historical being generated by the mining industry.The introduction and use of a new plant species into a new area involves: 1. easy to obtain seed; 2.- maintaining the crown shape habitus and and leaf shape and size, respectively; 3 – determination of optimal physiological parameters. Therefore have been performed, the following experimental determinations: 1. - germination of seed obtained in the particular conditions of the Baia Mare; 2. - some morphomtric characteristics of leaves, in the juveniles of the 1-2 years; 3. – the dynamic of photosynthesis intensity in these plants, during the day, during summer/autumn months.The study results are promising for acclimatization of the species Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal in particular conditions of Baia Mare. Morphological and physiological parametres tested are maintaned at similar to those of native habitat, described in the literature.
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