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Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: review of the genetic and molecular aspects

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Author(s): Andrade, Nilvano Alves de | Andrade, Santos Cruz de | Silva, Paula Dantas Meireles | Oliveira, Viviane Boaventura de | Andrade, Bruno Bezerril

Journal: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
ISSN 1809-9777

Volume: 12;
Issue: 3;
Start page: 442;
Date: 2008;
Original page

Keywords: Angiofibroma | Histology | Genetics | Pathology

ABSTRACT
Introduction: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is a rare fibrovascular tumor of unknown etiology, with few studies analyzing its pathogenesis. Objective: Reviewing JNA's pathogenesis, emphasizing genetic and molecular aspects. Method: All the relevant articles indexed in PUBMED and LILACS, besides reference book chapters, published between 1959 and 2007 were reviewed. Results: The sex selectivity seen in JNA may be explained by intranuclear accumulation of androgen receptor and beta-catenin, a co-activator which increases the tumor sensitivity to androgynous. The genetic alterations seen in JNA are most frequently located in sexual chromosomes. A number of growth factors seem to be related to the tumor pathogenesis. The insulin-like growth factor II is highly expressed while the vascular endothelial growth factor and the transforming growth factor beta are released by stromal cells and may influence the JNA's growth and vascularization. Conclusion: In spite of the scarce data describing the JNA etiology and pathogenesis, genetic and molecular factors seem to collaborate to the understanding of the disease's many clinical and morphological features. Knowledge regarding these specific issues could contribute for the establishment of potential therapeutic targets in the future.
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