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Negundoside, an iridiod glycoside from leaves of Vitex negundo, protects human liver cells against calcium-mediated toxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride

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Author(s): Sheikh A Tasduq, Peerzada J Kaiser, Bishan D Gupta, Vijay K Gupta, Rakesh K Johri.

Journal: World Journal of Gastroenterology
ISSN 1007-9327

Volume: 14;
Issue: 23;
Start page: 3693;
Date: 2008;
Original page

Keywords: Negundoside | Silymarin | HuH-7 | Carbon tetrachloride | CYP 2E1 | Oxidative stress | Calcium | Toxicity

ABSTRACT
AIM: To evaluate the protective effect of 2'-p-hydroxybenzoylmussaenosidic acid [negundoside (NG), against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced toxicity in HuH-7 cells.METHODS: CCl4 is a well characterized hepatotoxin, and inducer of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1)-mediated oxidative stress. In addition, lipid peroxidation and accumulation of intracellular calcium are important steps in the pathway involved in CCl4 toxicity. Liver cells (HuH-7) were treated with CCl4, and the mechanism of the cytoprotective effect of NG was assessed. Silymarin, a known hepatoprotective drug, was used as control.RESULTS: NG protected HuH-7 cells against CCl4 toxicity and loss of viability without modulating CYP2E1 activity. Prevention of CCl4 toxicity was associated with a reduction in oxidative damage as reflected by decreased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a decrease in lipid peroxidation and accumulation of intracellular Ca2+ levels and maintenance of intracellular glutathione homeostasis. Decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), induction of caspases mediated DNA fragmentation and cell cycle arrest, as a result of CCl4 treatment, were also blocked by NG. The protection afforded by NG seemed to be mediated by activation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) synthesis and inhibition of phospholipases (cPLA2).CONCLUSION: NG exerts a protective effect on CYP2E1-dependent CCl4 toxicity via inhibition of lipid peroxidation, followed by an improved intracellular calcium homeostasis and inhibition of Ca2+-dependent proteases.
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