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NEUROBIOLOGICAL MODULATORS OF ANXIETY

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Author(s): Mohale Deepak S. | Tripathi Alok S. | Wadhwani Paresh J. | Shrirao Abhijit V. | Chandewar Anil V.

Journal: International Research Journal of Pharmacy
ISSN 2230-8407

Volume: 3;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 60;
Date: 2012;
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Keywords: Anxiety | Norepinephrine | Cholecystokinin | Corticotrophin releasing factor | Gamma Aminobuteric Acid.

ABSTRACT
Anxiety can be a core symptom of various mental/ behavioral disorders such as major depressive disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, panic disorder, adaptive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, social withdrawal disorder, and various phobias. The neuroanatomic circuits that support fear and anxiety behavior are modulated by a variety of neurochemicals, these include the peptidergic neurotransmitters, Corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and substance P, the monoaminergic transmitters, Norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT), and dopamine (DA), and the amino acid transmitters, Gamma Aminobuteric Acid (GABA) and glutamate and many more. These neurochemical systems subserve important adaptive functions in preparing the organism for responding to threat or stress, by increasing vigilance, modulating memory, mobilizing energy stores, and elevating cardiovascular function. Nevertheless, these biological responses to threat and stress can become maladaptive if they are chronically or inappropriately activated.
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