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Nisze komórek macierzystych i neurogeneza w mózgu dojrzałym

Author(s): Artur Pałasz | Katarzyna Bogus | Aleksandra Bryzek | Marcin Kamiński

Journal: Neuropsychiatria i Neuropsychologia
ISSN 1896-6764

Volume: 5;
Issue: 2;
Start page: 49;
Date: 2010;
Original page

Keywords: neurogenesis | stem cell niche | hippocampus | adult neurogenesis

The discovery of undifferentiated, actively proliferatingneural stem cells (NSCs) in the mature brain opensa brand new chapter in contemporary neuroscience.Adult neurogenesis appears to occur in specific brainregions throughout life in all mammalian species. Thisunique phenomenon is considered to be important inthe processes of memory, learning and neural plasticity.Recently formulated hypotheses suggest thatimpaired adult neurogenesis is related to the pathogenesisof mental and neurological disorders e.g. depression,schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Inthe adult mammalian brain, neural stem cells are locatedin the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampaldentate gyrus and in the subventricular zone (SVZ) ofthe lateral ventricle ependymal wall. The neural progenitorsof the SGZ area migrate to the granular layerof the dentate gyrus. The SVZ stem cells creating therostral migratory stream (RMS) go to the olfactory bulb,where they differentiate into interneurons. However,the pluripotency of adult NSCs seems to be limited intime and space. The proliferation, maturation andmobility of adult neural stem cells are precisely and constantlyregulated by many substances deriving from theircell niche, such as growth and neurotrophic factors, e.g.,FGF, VEGF, EGF, IGF-1, CNTF, BDNF, LIF, and alsoby numerous agents from outside of this zone, e.g., neurotransmitters,neuromodulators, hormones and drugs.
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