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Author(s): Parle Milind | Kadian Renu | Kaura Sushila

Journal: International Research Journal of Pharmacy
ISSN 2230-8407

Volume: 4;
Issue: 8;
Start page: 89;
Date: 2013;
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Keywords: neurotransmitter | schizophrenia | lesion | amphetamine | psychosis.

Animal models have become indispensible tools for discovering new medicines and in the analysis of multitude of causes, bio-markers and pathophysiological changes, which bring about symptoms characteristics of a specific disorder. One of the biggest challenges in discovering medicines for psychosis is to find an appropriate animal model of this illness possessing fair face validity, construct validity, and predictive validity. We had explained in detail behavioral models of psychosis in our previous article. In the present review article, the authors have described various non-behavioral models such as pharmacological models (administering specific chemicals), genetic models (through genetic manipulation), lesion models (lesion of selected brain parts) and neuro-developmental models employed for screening anti-psychotic agents. All these animal models imitate schizophrenic defects in some manner. Traditionally, pharmacological models (drug/chemical-induced psychosis) were the most widely used. These models involve the manipulation of dopaminergic, glutamatergic, serotonergic, or GABA-ergic systems. In Lesion models, selected area of an animal's brain is damaged, to induce psychosis-like symptoms. Genetic factors also play a prominent role in many psychiatric disorders and numerous putative candidate genes have been identified. Neurodevelopmental models are based on the fact that schizophrenia can be caused due to prenatal exposure to certain viruses. The animals usually employed for the development of these models include rats, mice, and primates. The specific animal models developed within these frameworks are described in this review article.
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