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Non-therapeutic administration of a model antimicrobial growth promoter modulates intestinal immune responses

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Author(s): Costa Estela | Uwiera Richard RE | Kastelic John P | Selinger L Brent | Inglis G Douglas

Journal: Gut Pathogens
ISSN 1757-4749

Volume: 3;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 14;
Date: 2011;
Original page

Keywords: Antimicrobial growth promoters | AGP | chlortetracycline | Citrobacter rodentium | immunomodulation hypothesis

ABSTRACT
Abstract Background The development of efficacious alternatives to antimicrobial growth promoters (AGP) in livestock production is an urgent issue, but is hampered by a lack of knowledge regarding the mode of action of AGP. The belief that AGP modulate the intestinal microbiota has become prominent in the literature; however, there is a lack of experimental evidence to support this hypothesis. Using a chlortetracycline-murine-Citrobacter rodentium model, the ability of AGP to modulate the intestinal immune system in mammals was investigated. Results C. rodentium was transformed with the tetracycline resistance gene, tetO, and continuous oral administration of a non-therapeutic dose of chlortetracycline to mice did not affect densities of C. rodentium CFU in feces throughout the experiment or associated with mucosal surfaces in the colon (i.e. at peak and late infection). However, chlortetracycline regulated transcription levels of Th1 and Th17 inflammatory cytokines in a temporal manner in C. rodentium-inoculated mice, and ameliorated weight loss associated with infection. In mice inoculated with C. rodentium, those that received chlortetracycline had less pathologic changes in the distal colon than mice not administered CTC (i.e. relative to untreated mice). Furthermore, chlortetracycline administration at a non-therapeutic dose did not impart either prominent or consistent effects on the colonic microbiota. Conclusion Data support the hypothesis that AGP function by modulating the intestinal immune system in mammals. This finding may facilitate the development of biorationale-based and efficacious alternatives to AGP.
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