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The nucleolar structure and nucleolar proteins as indicators of cell proliferation events in plants

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Author(s): Fernando Gonzalez-Camacho | Francisco Javier Medina

Journal: Journal of Applied Biomedicine
ISSN 1214-021X

Volume: 3;
Issue: 4;
Start page: 167;
Date: 2005;
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Keywords: Ribosome | cell cycle | nucleolin | fibrillarin | Western blotting | electron microscopy

ABSTRACT
Cell proliferation is a crucial cellular process which influences development. In plants, meristems areformed by actively proliferating cells, in which the main expression of proliferation is the existence of acell division cycle. Many cell activities are influenced by the cell proliferation status and cell cycleprogression, among them ribosome biogenesis, which is morphologically expressed as the nucleolus. Theconnection is established through nucleolar proteins, which regulate the synthesis and processing ofpreribosomal precursors and, at the same time, are targets of various cell cycle regulators, such as certainkinases. Nucleolin is one of these nucleolar proteins, whose level increases with cell proliferation anddepends on the cell cycle stages. Not only the levels, but also other important features of the protein, suchas its distribution in situ in the nucleolus, its phosphorylation and its physiological degradation, dependon these parameters. Furthermore, since the nucleolar structure is highly sensitive to functional variations,distinct nucleolar structures, regarding the nucleolar size and the distribution of nucleolar subcomponents,have been defined for each period of the cell cycle, using synchronized cells. In addition to increasing ourknowledge of cellular physiology, these relationships can be used to mark the proliferative state of thecell and the periods of cell cycle.
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