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Author(s): Arzu ÇAKINBERK | Erkan Turan DEMİREL

Journal: Selcuk Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitusu Dergisi
ISSN 1302-1796

Issue: 24;
Start page: 103;
Date: 2010;
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Keywords: Leadership Style | Transformational Leadership | Interactive Leadership | Non-Transactional Leadership

ABSTRACT
Producing good quality service has been come obligation more than necessity for all organizations in the world which inglobalization process more and more. In this process Transformational structure of leadership in organizations that aimed quality,has been changed towards transformational concept. In the times when great changes are experienced, new values rise and in thetimes when nobody guess the future, we need leaders who can draw new ways. The leadership style which can best suit to thisrapid changing is transformational laedership. A transformational laeder has all the beheaviours and characteristics of ‘charismaticeffect’, ‘intellectual stimulation’, ‘insprational motivation’, ‘individual support. Important result of transformational leadership onemployees one of the organizational commitment. Organizational commitment can be defined as internalization towards theorganization, identification, and adopting the organizational objectives as well as the desire to be a member of the organizationand the extent to sacrifice.Studies on leadership and organizational commitment behaviors become the issues that are frequently researched by variousdisciplines such as management, human resource management and behavioral sciences and importance of the concepts isincreasing every day. By motivating employees today’s leaders should form healthy environments, in which creativity andcommitment are supported, they take pride in their works, and are proud of their successes. A variety of researches emphasize theeffectiveness of managers’ leadership behaviors on increasing the organizational motivation of human resources in businessenterprises. Employees feeling themselves as a part of the organization, that is, those who work with high organizationalcommitment are quite important for the business enterprise’s productivity and innovativeness. In creating an organizationalcommitment this view highlights the necessity of accepting the leadership applications as an important guide.The universe of this research consists of 976 subsidiary health care personnel working at public hospitals in Malatya andTunceli. The sample on the other hand is composed of 300 people selected randomly. Questionnaire is distributed to 300 peopleand 4 of them cannot be used since they were not filled completely. Analysis is conducted via data collected from 296 subsidiaryhealth care personnel. This number is found to be statistically significant.In the research, data is collected via distributing a questionnaire with three sections. During the implementation of thesurvey, participants are informed only to evaluate the present situation and warned not to consider the desired or wantedsituations.The first section of the questionnaire contains personal questions such as age, education level, marital status, number ofchildren, and terms of office. The second section of the questionnaire contains Multi-Factor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) tomeasure employees’ perception of leadership. This leadership questionnaire was first developed by Bass in 1985, and then it isrevised via new studies. Bass and Avalio (1999) updated by finalizing it as MLQ 5x. This questionnaire being developed fortesting effective leadership has strong validity and reliability in evaluation of leaders’ performance in different national cultures atdifferent organizational levels. MLQ is a survey containing forty-five descriptive statements and measuring leadership styles underfour dimensions. These are as follows: Transformational Leadership (20 questions), Transactional Leadership (12 questions), Non-Transactional Leadership (4 questions), Outcomes of Leadership (9 questions). In the third section of the questionnaire, todetermine the participants’ organizational commitment level, “Organizational Commitment Scale” developed by Meyer and Allenand used by many researchers is employed. The scale suggested by Meyer and Allen aims to measure three dimensions oforganizational commitment, Effective Commitment(6 questions), Continuance Commitment (6 questions), and NormativeCommitment (5 questions), with 17 statements in total.Scales are constructed as 5-point Likert scale (1= not at all,...5=frequently, if not always) and each category is considered tohave equal intervals. For each participant, findings of 5-point scaled-answers above are coded as 5, 4, 3, 2, and 1 for thestatements in favor and coded in the reverse order for the statements in opposition, and then arithmetic means of all theanswered questions are calculated accordingly. Thus, each participant’s score was calculated. In interpretation of the arithmeticmeans of research findings, the intervals taken into consideration are as follows: low (1.00 ≤ arithmetic mean ≤2.60), moderate(2.60 < arithmetic mean≤ 3.40), and high (3.40 < arithmetic mean ≤ 5.00). To test whether the means differ from the expectedvalues one sample t test, to identify the correlation between perception of leadership and organizational commitment correlationtest is used, and to determine whether arithmetic means differ for demographic characteristics one-way ANOVA and independentsample t-test are used.This study mainly intends to assess the correlation between employees’ perception of leadership and organizationalcommitment. So, primarily transactional leadership styles, transformational leadership styles and concept of organizationalcommitment are briefly scrutinized with sub-dimensions and conceptual framework is formed. The result of the research findingsindicates that answer of the question “Leadership styles of managers really affect the commitment of employees?” is yes. Of allthe leadership styles, the strong influence of transformational leadership on organizational commitment is identified.Statistical analyses indicate high organizational commitment of participants. While the perceptions of transformational andinteractive leadership are high, perceptions of non-transactional leadership is moderate. Results point out that participants feelnormative commitment at most, and then they feel continuance commitment and effective commitment respectively. This makesit possible to state that, the fact that the participants experience normative commitment at most supports literature. The mainreason participants keep working at the organization is not “real desire to stay” but instead it is “obligation”.Findings obtained from the measurements of employee attitudes towards businesses guide managers to determine strengthsand aspects to be improved. Organizational commitment has a positive influence on job satisfaction, productivity and servicequality and thus it increases consumer satisfaction. All of the researches increase the importance of organizational commitmentand state how effective “personal characteristics” are in providing organizational commitment. Besides, they intend to attractattention of managers to those issues. The relations between organizational commitment and leadership style and job satisfactioncan be recommended as issues for further research.Research results and recommendations are believed to be useful especially for health care business managers for furtherincreasing organizational commitment of human resources that they work together through their leadership styles.

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