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Outbreaks in vaccine development: Review

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Author(s): *Guno Sindhu Chakraborthy

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research
ISSN 0974-6943

Volume: 2;
Issue: 5;
Start page: 781;
Date: 2009;
Original page

Keywords: HIV AIDS | Vaccine | Immune suppression.

ABSTRACT
The development of safe and effective vaccine against HIV is the new challenge in the medical research. The focus of research is on developing HIV vaccine to boost the immune system of the individual to respond when exposed to the virus for prolonged period. In HIV vaccine development it is important to influence the memory T-Cell which acquires a special marker called CD-4 and CD-8 in thymus to boost the primary and secondary immune process. The various HIV vaccines in the experimental stages include Peptide vaccines, Recombinant subunit protein vaccine, live vector vaccine, DNA vaccine, Combination vaccine and Pseudovirion vaccine. Recombinant sub unit protein vaccines are better compared to other vaccines as it stimulates immune system safely and produces effective antibody production. There are two major candidates for HIV vaccine development. The first contain DNA strand for HIV gag protein and the second is the defective adenovirus which have parts of HIV genetic material incorporated in its genetic material. Vector vaccine contain another disease virus particularly vaccinia virus which produce cowpox- like disease and canary pox virus which produce small pox like disease. This vaccine with several genes from HIV is under the development process. These express multiple HIV like genes. The challenges in the development of HIV vaccine are evaluation of safety and toxicity in Phase I clinical trial, measurement of efficacy in terms of antibody production in Phase II clinical Trials and largely Phase III experimental testing and Efficacy studies. Our efforts should be in a progress to develop a safe and effective vaccine from one of the above categories against HIV which will minimize persistent viral infections in patients chronically affected with immune suppression.
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