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Oxidative stress in hemodialysis patients receiving intravenous iron therapy and the role of N-acetylcysteine in preventing oxidative stress

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Author(s): Swarnalatha G | Ram R | Neela Prasad | Naidu M | Dakshina Murty K

Journal: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
ISSN 1319-2442

Volume: 21;
Issue: 5;
Start page: 852;
Date: 2010;
Original page

ABSTRACT
To determine the contribution of injectable iron administered to hemodialysis (HD) patients in causing oxidative stress and the beneficial effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in re-ducing it, we studied in a prospective, double blinded, randomized controlled, cross over trial 14 adult HD patients who were randomized into two groups; one group received NAC in a dose of 600 mgs twice daily for 10 days prior to intravenous iron therapy and the other group received placebo. Both the groups were subjected to intravenous iron therapy, 100 mg of iron sucrose in 100 mL of normal saline given over a period of one hour. Blood samples for the markers of oxidative stress were taken before and after iron therapy. After the allowance of a week of wash out period for the effect of N-acetylcysteine we crossed over the patients to the opposite regimen. We measured the lipid peroxidation marker, malondiaaldehyde (MDA), to evaluate the oxidative stress and total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC) for the antioxidant level in addition to the highly sensitive C-reactive protein (HsCRP). Non-invasive assessment of endothelial dysfunction was measured by digital plethysmography before and after intravenous iron therapy. There was an increase of MDA (21.97 + 3.65% vs 7.06 + 3.65%) and highly sensitive C-reactive protein (HsCRP) (11.19 + 24.63% vs 13.19 + 7.7%) after iron administration both in the placebo and the NAC groups. NAC reduced the baseline acute systemic generation of oxidative stress when com-pared to placebo, which was statistically significant with MDA (12.76 + 4.4% vs 9.37 + 4.40%: P = 0.032) but not with HsCRP though there was a declining trend (2.85 + 22.75 % vs 8.93 + 5.19%: P = 0.112). Pre-treatment with NAC reduced the endothelial dysfunction when compared to placebo, but it was not statistically significant, except for reflection index (RI). We conclude that in our HD patients NAC reduced the oxidative stress before and after the administration of intravenous iron therapy in addition to the endothelial dysfunction induced by this treatment.
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