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Author(s): Bilge DONUK

Journal: Selcuk Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitusu Dergisi
ISSN 1302-1796

Issue: 21;
Start page: 179;
Date: 2009;
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Keywords: Sport Managers | Job Satisfaction | Sport Management

ABSTRACT
The concept of job satisfaction and the assessment of job satisfaction began first in 1911 with the research of Frank Taylor.Taylor stated that rewards like the earnings of the practiced job, promotion, incentive payments, appreciation, and opportunitiesfor progress could achieve job satisfaction (Aslan, 2001: 63). One of the biggest preludes to the study of job satisfaction was theHawthorne studies. These studies (1924-1933), primarily credited to Elton Mayo of the Harvard Business School, sought to findthe effects of various conditions (most notably illumination) on workers’ productivity. These studies ultimately showed that novelchanges in work conditions temporarily increase productivity (called the Hawthorne Effect). It was later found that this increaseresulted, not from the new conditions, but from the knowledge of being observed. This finding provided strong evidence thatpeople work for purposes other than pay, which paved the way for researchers to investigate other factors in job satisfaction(Kyle, 2006: 177). In 1935, Hoppock found that job satisfaction forms part of general satisfaction (Hoppock R, 1935:47).Job satisfaction has been defined as a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job; an affectivereaction to one’s job; and an attitude towards one’s job ( Locke ve Weiss, 2001: 282) . The happier people are within their job, themore satisfied they are said to be. Job satisfaction is not the same as motivation, although it is clearly linked. Job design aims toenhance job satisfaction and performance methods include job rotation, job enlargement and job enrichment. Other influenceson satisfaction include the management style and culture, employee involvement, empowerment and autonomous work groups.Job satisfaction is a general or global affective reaction that individuals hold about their job. While researchers andpractitioners most often measure global job satisfaction, there is also interest in measuring different "facets" or "dimensions" ofsatisfaction. Examination of these facet conditions is often useful for a more careful examination of employee satisfaction withcritical job factors. Traditional job satisfaction facets include: co-workers, pay, job conditions, supervision, nature of the work andbenefits (Spector, 1997:2 ).There are three main theories of job satisfaction.Frederick Herzberg Theory: Herzberg an American Behavioral scientist suggest that people show their dissatisfaction withsalary, job security or organization policy. However, improvement regarding these dissatisfying factors do not necessary mean tohave satisfying employees. He identifies hygiene factors like recognition, achievement and growth. According to him these mightbe helpful to raise job satisfaction level .The independent effect of hygiene factor is inconclusive and have been revisited time andagain. Hackman and Oldham theory of job characteristics: This theory first introduced in 1975. The concept of this theoryrevolves around five core work and three psychological dimensions. Skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, andtask feedback are the work attributes that result in three psychological states namely meaningfulness of work, responsibility forwork outcome, and knowledge of work activities. Adam’s Equity Theory of Job Satisfaction: Adam theory of equity describe thatwe often equate our condition at work place with other contemporaries. When one as an individual develops feeling that he hasnot been fairly treated in terms input he puts in his work and what he gets output. This state might leads to diminishing jobsatisfaction level. When people observe a ratio of inputs to outcomes that either favors other people or themselves they or both. Adam’s theory suggest balance between outputs like salary, benefits, responsibility, reputation, praise, and sense ofachievement and inputs like hard work, skill, effort, flexibility, and adaptability. According the theory of equity balance betweenInputs and Outputs might enhance employees’ level of pleasure which they derive from their work. This will lead to probably lesssick leave, absenteeism, efficient work environment and cost effective workers (Syptak J.M. ve Ark., 1999: 26)Productivity and effectiveness has been discussed for many years in management and organization literature. Becauseorganizational success depends on the skills and willingness of the workers employed in an organization. Besides that to besuccessful in a business life, a person has to work willingly and managers have to target high satisfaction of their workers. The jobsatisfaction levels of managers who aim to increase their workers job satisfaction is highly important for the foundation theywork.Sport organizations can reach their aims with the help of educated sport managers. In Turkey, the organizations that sportmanagers can be grouped into either two categories: governmental or non-governmental. The government related group isformed with a central construction and from province and district organizations, province extensions with local administrations.The ones who are non-governmental are formed from private sector sport organizations and volunteer organizations (associationsand foundations). Thus, we have 4 different constructions.The Youth and Sport General Directorship, the youth and sport province, and the district directorships of its provinceorganizations, are all located within the public sector. In Turkey, the Football Pools Organization Directorship and amateurfederations are located there as well. Officers, contractual personnel, interim personnel, and workers conduct the governmentalservices. Personnel business enterprises or company organized establishments act in the private sector. They can be both theorganizations that present sports services or the sports departments of written and visual press, tourism organizations, and otherassociated groups. These managers’ job satisfaction is very important for Turkish sport and their sector’s achievement.The aim of this study is to determine the job satisfaction levels of sport managers who work private and public sectors. Eachsubject was provided with a self-administered questionnaire. General Satisfaction Questionnaire was used as data collectioninstrument, which consisted of two parts; a) items asking for demographic information, b) 18 items are related with the jobsatisfaction. The statistical analysis frequency distribution was used for demographics and Varyans analyze was used to assessdifferences of the job satisfaction level of the two groups. Pearson correlation test was applied to define if any relationship existedbetween age and job satisfaction level, between gender and job satisfaction and between income and job satisfaction level. Resulthas indicated that private sector sport manager’s job satisfaction is nearly in a good level. When we examine public sector sportmanagers it is seen that their job satisfaction is in an average level. There is no significant difference between job satisfaction andage, gender, income.
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