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Pain assessment in children undergoing venipuncture: the Wong–Baker faces scale versus skin conductance fluctuations

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Author(s): Francesco Savino | Liliana Vagliano | Simone Ceratto | Fabio Viviani | Roberto Miniero | Fulvio Ricceri

Journal: PeerJ
ISSN 2167-8359

Volume: 1;
Start page: e37;
Date: 2013;
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Keywords: Pain assessment | Wong–Baker scale | skin conductance | venipuncture | children

ABSTRACT
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the subjective Wong–Baker faces pain rating scale (WBFS) and of the objective skin conductance fluctuation (SCF) test in assessing pain in children undergoing venipuncture. One-hundred and fifty children (aged 5–16 years) entered the study. All underwent venipuncture at the antecubital fossa to collect blood specimens for routine testing in the same environmental conditions. After venipuncture, the children indicated their pain intensity using the WBFS, whereas the number of SCFs was recorded before, during and after venipuncture. So, pain level was measured in each child with WBFS and SCF. We found that the level of WBFS-assessed pain was lower in all children, particularly those above 8 years of age, than SCF-assessed pain (p 

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