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Pathogenesis of helicobacter pylori infection: Bacterium and host relationship

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Author(s): Sokić-Milutinović Aleksandra | Todorović Vera N. | Milosavljević Tomica

Journal: Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo
ISSN 0370-8179

Volume: 132;
Issue: 9-10;
Start page: 340;
Date: 2004;
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Keywords: Helicobacter pylori | pathogenesis | virulence | ulcer | adenocarcinoma

ABSTRACT
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonizes the gastric mucosa of a half of the mankind. Duodenal ulcer is found in 15-25%, t gastric ulcer in 13%, while gastric adenocarcinoma develops in 1% of all infected individuals. Pathogenesis of H. pylori infection is related to the virulence factors of the bacterium, environmental (dietary habits, hygiene, stress) and host factors (age, sex, blood type). Colonization of the gastric mucosa is related to the motility of the bacterium, presence of lipopolysacharide (LPS) and various bacterial enzymes. Gastric mucosal injury is the result of H. pylori LPS, vacuolization cytotoxin (vacA), cytotoxin associated protein (cagA), heat shock proteins and factors responsible for neutrophil chemotaxis and activity. H. pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa and zones of ectopic gastric epithelium. H. pylori infection is transmitted via oral-oral, fecal-oral and iatrogenic way (during endoscopy). Higher prevalence of the infection is associated with lower socioeconomic level, lack of drinking water, and living in a community. Acute H. pylori gastritis is superficial pangastritis progressing into the chronic phase after 7-10 days. Gastric mucosal atrophy and intestinal metaplasia can develop during the course of H. pylori infection. Clearly defined factors that influence the outcome of H. pylori infection include bacterial strain, distribution of gastritis, acid secretion and gastric mucosal atrophy.
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