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Pediatric Urolithiasis: An Experience of a Single Center

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Author(s): Afshin Safaei Asl | Shohreh Maleknejad

Journal: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
ISSN 1735-8582

Volume: 5;
Issue: 5;
Start page: 309;
Date: 2011;
Original page

ABSTRACT
Introduction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and metabolic and anatomic risk factors of urolithiasis in children.Materials and Methods. Between 2004 and 2009, a total of 84 children (35 girls and 49 boys) had been treated because of urolithiasis. Clinical presentation, urinary tract infection, calculus localization, family history, presence of anatomic abnormalities, and urinary metabolic risk factors were evaluated, retrospectively.Results. The children were between 6 months and 16 years of age (mean age, 5.25 ± 3.61 years). The calculus diameter was 3.2 mm to 31 mm (mean, 7.31 ± 4.64 mm). In 90.6% of the cases, the calculus was located only in the kidneys and in 2.4% it was only in the bladder. The most common presentations were urinary tract infection, restlessness, and abdominal pain. A positive family history of urinary calculi was detected in 27.3%; urinary tract infection, in 23.8%; and anatomic abnormality, in 10.7% of the patients. Metabolic evaluation, which was carried out in 78 patients, revealed that 52.6% of them had a metabolic risk factor including normocalcemic hypercalciuria (21.7%), hyperuricosuria (11.5%), cystinuria (3.8%), and hyperoxaluria (5.1%).Conclusions. We think that urolithiasis remains a serious problem in children in our country. Family history of urolithiasis, urologic abnormalities, especially under the age of 5 years, metabolic disorders, and urinary tract infections tend to be associated with childhood urolithiasis.

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