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Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy with and without Retrograde Pyelography: Preliminary Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

Author(s): Ali Tabibi | Hamed Akhavizadegan | Kia Noori Mahdavi | Mohammad Najafi Semnani | Mojgan Karbakhsh Davari | Ali Reza Niroomand

Journal: Urology Journal
ISSN 1735-1308

Volume: 2;
Issue: 3;
Start page: 132;
Date: 2005;
Original page

Introduction: Since the introduction of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), many modifications to entering the pyelocalyceal system have been made. One alternative is to insert a needle pointed to an opaque stone as a landmark. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of managing kidney calculi by PNL with and without retrograde pyelography. Materials and Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 55 candidates for PNL with a single opaque kidney calculus in the calyx alone, the pelvis alone, or both the calyx and the pelvis were assigned into 2 groups. Twenty-seven patients underwent PNL with a ureteral catheter, and 28 patients underwent PNL without a ureteral catheter. Clinical outcomes were compared between the 2 groups using plain radiographs taken on the first day after the procedure. Results: Patients had similar distributions regarding sex, age, operative time, hospital stay, past surgical history on the kidneys, and stone size. There was a significantly greater decrease in postoperative hemoglobin level in patients having PNL with a ureteral catheter (P < .001) than in those having the procedure without a ureteral catheter. No differences were seen among patients in the 2 groups in terms of stone-free rate, and number of patients with insignificant residue, and those needing extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, a second PNL procedure, or transurethral lithotripsy. Conclusions: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy without ureteral catheterization has specific benefits: urine leakage is lower and there is no need to perform cystoscopy. Patients with a single kidney calculus are good candidates for PNL without previous ureteral catheter insertion.
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