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Perspectiva neurobiológica de la esquizofrenia

Author(s): Apiquian , Rogelio | Fresán , Ana | García Anaya, María | Graff Guerrero, Ariel

Journal: Salud Mental
ISSN 0185-3325

Volume: 24;
Issue: 6;
Start page: 36;
Date: 2001;
Original page

Keywords: Schizophrenia | neurobiology | dopamine | neurodevelopment.

This review examines several biochemical systems related to schizophrenia and their interaction with their physiopathology. Until now, the explanation has been based in just one biochemical theory to explain the etiology of schizophrenia. Dopamine has been one of the primary neurotransmitters involved in the etiology of schizophrenia. The actual statement of dopaminergic functioning lays over the presence of a hypodopaminergic functioning in the prefrontal cortex and a hyperdopaminergic state, principally in basal ganglia. On the other hand, an increase in prefrontal dopaminergic activity reduces dopaminergic concentration in the striatum. Serotonin inhibits dopamine release on the nigral substance, the striatum and prefrontal cortex; this could explain the presence of extrapyramidal symptoms when using of serotoninergic agonists. Serotoninergic antagonists facilitate prefrontal dopamine release and improve negative symptoms. This mechanism explains the effects of atypical antipsychotics over negative symptoms. Antagonists of 5-HT3 do not induce changes over primary dopaminergic activity, but they diminishe dopamine release mediated by stress, so that these substances can have a prophylactic effect over relapses induced by stress in schizophrenic patients...
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