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Pharmaceutical Importance and Synthetic Strategies for Imidazolidine-2-thione and Imidazole-2-thione Derivatives

Author(s): Jignasa K. Savjani | Anuradha K. Gajjar

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences
ISSN 1028-8880

Volume: 14;
Issue: 24;
Start page: 1076;
Date: 2011;
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Keywords: `solid phase synthesis | antihypertensive activity | imidazole-2-thione | imidazolidine-2-thione | Anti HIV activity | imidazolidinone | solid phase synthesis | thiohydantoin

Imidazole heterocycles containing oxygen or sulfur heteroatoms are of considerable pharmaceutical interest. Many synthetic strategies for imidazolidine-2-thione and imidazole-2-thione derivatives were developed in the past years. They have been well documented by a steadily increasing number of publications and patents. Substituted imidazolidine-2-thiones and imidazole-2-thiones display remarkable biological activities. For instance, imidazole-2-thione has been reported to exhibit antimicrobial, antifungal, antithyroid, antioxidant, cardiotonic, antihypertensive, Dopamine -Hydroxylase (DBH) inhibitory and anti-HIV properties. Imidazolidine-2-thione derivatives have been reported to exhibit antimicrobial activity, anti-HIV activity, antifungal activity and so forth. The main purpose of this review is to present a survey of the literature on the different methods of synthesis and reactions involving imidazolidine-2-thione and imidazole-2-thione during the last few decades. This article summarizes an efficient, microwave-assisted method for the liquid-phase combinatorial synthesis of 3,5-disubstituted-thiohydantoin, also reported previously. Synthesis of metal complexes of imidazolidine-2-thione and its derivatives were reported as antimicrobial agents also discussed in the article. Some of the chiral imidazolidine-2-thione N-and C-nucleoside were reported as precursors for the synthesis of azidonucleosides and fluoronucleosides known for their anti-AIDS activity. Metal complexes of heterocyclic thione ligands were reported to possess antifungal activity. Imidazolidine-2-thione and imidazole-2-thione derivatives have found applications in diverse therapeutic areas. Imidazolidine-2-thiones are also used as a chiral auxiliary and ligand for asymmetric catalysis.

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