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PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF SNAKE VENOM L- AMINO ACID OXIDASES

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Author(s): Joseph Baby | Rajan Sheeja S | M.V Jeevitha | S.U Ajisha

Journal: International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy
ISSN 2229-3566

Volume: 2;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 114;
Date: 2011;
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Keywords: L-Amino acid oxidases | cytotoxicity | platelet aggregation | enzymes | therapeutic agents.

ABSTRACT
L-Amino acid oxidases are flavoenzymes which catalyze the stereospecific oxidative deamination of an L-amino acid substrate to a corresponding a-ketoacid with hydrogen peroxide and ammonia production. These enzymes, which are widely distributed in many different organisms, exhibit a marked affinity for hydrophobic amino acids, including phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, and leucine. Snake venom LAAO induces platelet aggregation and cytotoxicity in various cancer cell lines. The enzyme has antibacterial activity inhibiting the growth of Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. Specific substrates for the isolated protein are L-phenylalanine, L-tryptophan, L-methionine and L-leucine. The enzyme is stable at low temperatures (−20 ºC, −70 ºC) and loses its activity by heating at 70 ºC. These enzymes are postulated to be toxins that may be involved in the allergic inflammatory response and specifically associated with mammalian endothelial cells damage. However, in the last decade these enzymes have become an interesting subject for pharmacological, structural and molecular characterizations. Structural and functional investigations of these enzymes can contribute to the advancement of toxinology and to the elaboration of novel therapeutic agents.
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