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Phosphorylation at Ser473 regulates heterochromatin protein 1 binding and corepressor function of TIF1beta/KAP1

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Author(s): Chang Chiung-Wen | Chou Han-Yi | Lin Yu-Sheng | Huang Kuo-Hsiang | Chang Ching-Jin | Hsu Tsui-Chun | Lee Sheng-Chung

Journal: BMC Molecular Biology
ISSN 1471-2199

Volume: 9;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 61;
Date: 2008;
Original page

ABSTRACT
Abstract Background As an epigenetic regulator, the transcriptional intermediary factor 1β (TIF1β)/KAP1/TRIM28) has been linked to gene expression and chromatin remodeling at specific loci by association with members of the heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) family and various other chromatin factors. The interaction between TIF1β and HP1 is crucial for heterochromatin formation and maintenance. The HP1-box, PXVXL, of TIF1β is responsible for its interaction with HP1. However, the underlying mechanism of how the interaction is regulated remains poorly understood. Results This work demonstrates that TIF1β is phosphorylated on Ser473, the alteration of which is dynamically associated with cell cycle progression and functionally linked to transcriptional regulation. Phosphorylation of TIF1β/Ser473 coincides with the induction of cell cycle gene cyclin A2 at the S-phase. Interestingly, chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that the promoter of cyclin A2 gene is occupied by TIF1β and that such occupancy is inversely correlated with Ser473 phosphorylation. Additionally, when HP1β was co-expressed with TIF1β/S473A, but not TIF1β/S473E, the colocalization of TIF1β/S473A and HP1β to the promoters of Cdc2 and Cdc25A was enhanced. Non-phosphorylated TIF1β/Ser473 allowed greater TIF1β association with the regulatory regions and the consequent repression of these genes. Consistent with possible inhibition of TIF1β's corepressor function, the phosphorylation of the Ser473 residue, which is located near the HP1-interacting PXVXL motif, compromised the formation of TIF1β-HP1 complex. Finally, we found that the phosphorylation of TIF1β/Ser473 is mediated by the PKCδ pathway and is closely linked to cell proliferation. Conclusion The modulation of HP1β-TIF1β interaction through the phosphorylation/de-phosphorylation of TIF1β/Ser473 may constitute a molecular switch that regulates the expression of particular genes. Higher levels of phosphorylated TIF1β/Ser473 may be associated with the expression of key regulatory genes for cell cycle progression and the proliferation of cells.
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