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Physiology of free radicals

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Author(s): Stevanović Jelka | Borozan Sunčica | Jović Slavoljub | Ignjatović Igor

Journal: Veterinarski Glasnik
ISSN 0350-2457

Volume: 65;
Issue: 1-2;
Start page: 95;
Date: 2011;
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Keywords: free radicals | sources | roles

ABSTRACT
Free radicals imply that every atom, molecule, ion, group of atoms, or molecules with one or several non-paired electrons in outer orbital. Among these are: nitrogenoxide (NO•), superoxide-anion-radical (O2•-), hydroxyl radical (OH•), peroxyl radical (ROO•), alcoxyl radical (RO•) and hydroperoxyl radical (HO2•). However, reactive oxygen species also include components without non-paired electrons in outer orbital (so-called reactive non-radical agents), such as: singlet oxygen (1O2), peroxynitrite (ONOO-), hydrogen-peroxide (H2O2), hypochloric acid (eg. HOCl) and ozone (O3). High concentrations of free radicals lead to the development of oxidative stress which is a precondition for numerous pathological effects. However, low and moderate concentrations of these matter, which occur quite normally during cell metabolic activity, play multiple significant roles in many reactions. Some of these are: regulation of signal pathways within the cell and between cells, the role of chemoattractors and leukocyte activators, the role in phagocytosis, participation in maintaining, changes in the position and shape of the cell, assisting the cell during adaption and recovery from damage (e.g.caused by physical effort), the role in normal cell growth, programmed cell death (apoptosis) and cell ageing, in the synthesis of essential biological compounds and energy production, as well as the contribution to the regulation of the vascular tone, actually, tissue vascularization.
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