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Phytochemical screening, acute toxicity, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic studies of aqueous extract of the root of Flueggea virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) in rats

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Author(s): J.O.C.Ezeonwumelu | A.N.Omar | A.M.Ajayi | A.G.Okoruwa | J.K.Tanayen | D.M.Kiplagat | O.A.Okpanachi | S.Abba | I.Ezekiel | A.N.Onchweri | C.O.Okonkwo | F.Byarugaba

Journal: International Journal of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences
ISSN 0976-5263

Volume: 03;
Issue: 03;
Start page: 128;
Date: 2012;
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Keywords: Acute toxicity | Anti-inflammatory | Anti-pyretic | Flueggea virosa | Phytochemicals | Rats

ABSTRACT
The aqueous extract of the dried root was investigated to determine its total yield, phytochemical constituents, acute toxicity, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities in groups of Wistar rats. The root extract was prepared by decoction method according to its local use. Standard methods of Trease and Evans and Harbourne were used for phytochemical screening. Acute toxicity was done with modified method of Lorke in phases one (500-5,000mg/kg) and two (6,000-10,000mg/kg) to ascertain the safety of the extract. Yeast-induced pyrexia and egg albumin-induced oedema in rats were done by oral administration of the extract at doses of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg. A yield of 11.8% was obtained after extraction. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, steroids and cardiac glycosides. Acute toxicity testing indicated that Flueggea virosa extract (FVE) given orally up to the dose of 10,000mg/kg caused no death in rats. The anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic studies each showed that while 100mg/kg of the extract did not exert a significant effect, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg exhibited significant (p
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