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Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activities of ethanolic and aqueous root extracts of Zanthoxyllum zanthoxylloides (Lam.) Waterm. on selected dental caries causing microbes

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Author(s): E.O. OSHOMOH | M. IDU

Journal: International Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
ISSN 2249-4340

Volume: 2;
Issue: 3;
Start page: 411;
Date: 2012;
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Keywords: Ethnomedicinal | gingivitis | periodontal disease | zone of inhibition | metabolites

ABSTRACT
Secondary metabolites such as tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, steroids and volatile oil are abundant in plants and are responsible for their therapeutic activities. Chewing sticks obtained from a variety of selected plants are used as a traditional method of mechanical oral hygiene by up to 80% – 90% of Nigerians. The root of Zanthoxyllum zanthoxylloides used in this study revealed that chewing sticks are capable of inhibiting gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria and fungi such as Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus auricularis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, Aspergilus flavus, Microsporium gypseum and Bacillus subtilis. The highest zone of inhibition was recorded against M. gypseum in 100mg/ml ethanol extract with a sensitivity diameter of 16.10±0.58 mm, while the least sensitive was recorded against S. auricularis with a sensitivity diameter of 5.23±0.12 mm. The results from these studies provide evidence for the ethnomedicinal use of the tested plant as chewing stick. The presence of bioactive substances (secondary metabolites) in the plant could be attributed to its medicinal properties.
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