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Phytochemical Screening, Cytotoxicity and Antibacterial Activities of Two Bangladeshi Medicinal Plants

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Author(s): Ajoy Roy | Subrata Kumar Biswas | Anusua Chowdhury | Manik Chandra Shill | Sheikh Zahir Raihan | Md. Abdul Muhit

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences
ISSN 1028-8880

Volume: 14;
Issue: 19;
Start page: 905;
Date: 2011;
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Keywords: bioassay | Antibacterial | amoxicillin | cytotoxic | phytochemical

ABSTRACT
The objectives of the present study were to investigate phytochemical screening and to assay cytotoxicity and antibacterial activities of ethanolic extracts of leaves of two medicinal plants, Aglaonema hookerianum Schott (Family: Araceae) and Lannea grandis Engl. (Family: Anacardiaceae) available in Bangladesh. The brine shrimp lethality bioassay showed that the ethanolic extracts of Aglaonema hookerianum and Lannea grandis possessed cytotoxic activities with LC50 5.25 (g mL-1) and 5.75 (g mL-1) and LC90 10.47 (g mL-1) and 9.55 (g mL-1), respectively. Two extracts obtained from leaves were examined for their antibacterial activities against some gram positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium and Staphylococcus aureus, also gram negative strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi and Vibrio cholerae. Agar disc diffusion method was applied to observe the antibacterial efficacy of the extracts. Results indicated that both plant extracts (500 g disc-1) displayed antibacterial activity against all of the tested microorganisms. These results were also compared with the zones of inhibition produced by commercially available standard antibiotic, Amoxicillin at concentration of 10 g disc-1. Observed antibacterial properties of the ethanolic extract of Aglaonema hookerianum Schott and Lannea grandis Engl. showed that both plants might be useful sources for the development of new potent antibacterial agents.
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