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Picaduras por escorpión Tityus asthenes en Mutatá, Colombia: aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos y toxinológicos Tityus asthenes scorpion stings: epidemiological, clinical and toxicological aspects

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Author(s): Juan P. Gómez | Juan C. Quintana | Patricia Arbeláez | Jorge Fernández | Juan F. Silva | Jacqueline Barona | Juan C. Gutiérrez | Abel Díaz | Rafael Otero

Journal: Biomédica
ISSN 0120-4157

Volume: 30;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 126;
Date: 2010;
Original page

Keywords: venenos de escorpión | epidemiología | toxicología | Colombia

ABSTRACT
Introducción. El escorpionismo afecta a países tropicales como Colombia.Objetivo. Determinar los indicadores ecológicos y epidemiológicos de las picaduras por Tityus asthenes en cuatro localidades de Mutatá, Colombia, y las características clínicas del envenenamiento y toxinológicas del veneno.Materiales y métodos. Es un estudio prospectivo/retrospectivo descriptivo y experimental; se visitaron aleatoriamente 324 de las 1.448 viviendas del municipio: 188 urbanas (58,0%) y 136 rurales (42,0%), con 1.593 habitantes. En 18 meses se estudiaron prospectivamente los pacientes picados por T. asthenes que ingresaron al hospital local y, retrospectivamente en encuestas domiciliarias, se determinó el subregistro. Se recolectaron escorpiones vivos y se realizaron experimentos con el veneno.Resultados. Hubo 12,9 más probabilidades de hallar ejemplares de T. asthenes en el área rural (OR=6,5; IC95% 3,9-10,8), en el intradomicilio y peridomicilio cercano a bosques y plantaciones agrarias altas (OR=13,0; IC95% 7,5-23,0). Se reportaron 80 picaduras ocurridas en los dos últimos años (prevalencia de 4,1%; IC95% 4,8-3,3); sólo 14 personas (17,5%) consultaron al hospital (subregistro de 82,5%). La prevalencia ponderada de infestación por escorpiones en las viviendas encuestadas fue de 26,9% (112 casas) (IC95% 30,8-22,9). El 50% de los accidentes ocurrió en la localidad de Caucheras: 10,6% de proporción de ataque. El envenenamiento sistémico fue más frecuente en niños (67%). La dosis letal 50 del veneno en ratones de 18 a 20 g, fue 121,6 μg (IC95% 103,7-139,6). Hubo reactividad inmunológica por Western blot de los antivenenos del Instituto Bioclón, México (Alacramyn®) y del Instituto Butantan, Brasil (Soro antiaracnídico®) con los venenos de T. asthenes y Centruroides gracilis/Centruroides margaritatus de Colombia.Conclusiones. Las picaduras por T. asthenes, con elevado subregistro, están asociadas a viviendas cercanas a bosques húmedos tropicales. Su veneno y el de C. gracilis, con diferencias de especificidad, reaccionaron con los antivenenos producidos en México y Brasil.Introduction. Scorpion stings are a public health problem in many countries. However, in Colombia, very few epidemiological, clinical or toxicological studies have been undertaken.Objective. Ecological and epidemiological aspects were related to the prevalence of scorpion stings by Tityus asthenes. The clinical features of envenomization were described in patients and in an experimental animal model.Materials and methods. The study was conducted in four localities of Mutatá and Urabá Counties in the province of Antioquia, Colombia. The sample consisted of 1,593 (929 urban, 664 rural) of the 5,305 exposed people, inhabitating 324 households (188 urban (58%); 136 rural (42%) of 1,448 houses total in the study area. An interview survey was performed in every selected family for a more realistic estimate of sting prevalence. Additionally, a prospective study was directed toward patients presenting scorpion stings at care at the local hospital over an 18-month period.Results. The probability was 12.9 times greater of finding T. asthenes inside or around houses in places near to forest and high agrarian plantations (odds ratio=13). Eighty scorpion stings were reported in the retrospective study (4.1% prevalence [95% CI 3.3-4.8%] ), but only 14 of the patients (17.5%) sought care in the local hospital (an 82.5% underreportage). Seventy percent of the stings occurred in rural places; 50% occurred in the locality of Caucheras, with an attack rate of 10.6%. The overall household infestation rate was 269% (95% CI 22.9-30.8%) and an area dispersion ratio of 100%. Signs of systemic envenomization occurred mainly in children (67%). The 50% lethal dose of T. asthenes venom was 121.6 μg for 18-20 g Swiss Webster rats (95% CI 103.7-139.6). Immunodetection of T. asthenes and Centruroides gracilis/C.margantatus venoms in the experimental animals was possible when were tested by Western blot against Alacramyn® (Instituto Bioclón, México) and Soro antiaracnídico® (Instituto Butantan, Brasil) antivenoms. Scorpion interspecific differences were noted.Conclusions. The prevalence of stings by T. asthenes were common and their presence was associated with tropical rainforests. Envenomization at low density can be neutralized efficiently by anti-scorpion antivenoms produced in México and Brazil but with differing specificities for the venom of each scorpion species.
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