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Pollution Issues in Iraqi Kurdistan Region

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Author(s): Hamed M. Jassim#1 , Yousif Abdulla Aziz Kurdi *2 , Fakhri H. Ibraheem Al-nidai

Journal: International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology
ISSN 2231-5381

Volume: 4;
Issue: 5;
Start page: 2050;
Date: 2013;
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Keywords: Pollutants | emission | environment | solid waste | air pollution | dust emission | carbon monoxide | carbon dioxide | nitrogen oxides | hydrocarbons | mass particulate.

ABSTRACT
The Kurdistan region in Iraq, and the cities in particular are facing environmental problems such as solid waste management, air pollution, water pollution, pollution due to automobiles, cement industry and oil refineries.There is a certain amount of awareness to the evolving environmental problems in the whole region of Kurdistan which need a special attention and treatments. This research will be involved in some of the environmental topics facing Kurdistan Region and also gives indications of the causes of the pollutants and extract conclusions and suggests remedies for reducing their impact on the environment.The following categories of environmental issues will be dealt with by performing extensive statistics and studies (qualitatively and quantitatively) in order to draw the relevant conclusions and to make some recommendations, as outlined below:1. Pollution due to the increasing numbers of vehicles in the region generally, which indicated an overall increased level of pollution by 13.43 times between 2006 and 2011, which is comparable to the level of increase of traffic volumes during the same period. This overall increase in the pollution rate can be broken down into the following pollutants:i. Carbon Monoxide ( CO ) quantities have increased by an amount of 12.44 times between 2006 and 2011, whereby the total daily amount produced in 2011 was 249.0 tons.ii. Hydrocarbons (HC) quantities have increased by an amount of 12.49 times over the same period, whereby the total daily amount produced in 2011 was 29.49 tons.iii. Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) quantities have increased by an amount of 12.92 times over the same period, whereby the total daily amount produced in 2011 was 19.76 tons.iv. Mass particulate quantities have increased by an amount of 17.74 times over the same period, whereby the total daily amount produced in 2011 was 2.803 tons.v. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) quantities have increased by an amount of 13.58 times over the same period, whereby the total daily amount produced in 2011 was 4319 tons.2. Pollution due to increasing cement production, which indicated an overall increased level of pollution by 13.78 times between 2004 and 2010. This is attributed to an increase in cement production by the same proportion during this period.3. Pollution due to an increase in the capacities of oil refining, which indicated an overall increased level of pollution by 37 times between 2007 and 2013, due to an increase in the oil refining capacities by the same amount over that period.
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