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Prevalence and distribution of glaucoma in central India (Glaucoma Survey - 2001)

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Author(s): Palimkar Anand | Khandekar Rajiv | Venkataraman V

Journal: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
ISSN 0301-4738

Volume: 56;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 57;
Date: 2008;
Original page

Keywords: Blindness | glaucoma | India | low vision | prevalence study

ABSTRACT
Purpose: A community-based survey was conducted in Rajnandangaon district of Chhattisgarh state of central India in 2001 to assess the prevalence of glaucoma in the age group of =35 years. Design: Community-based cross-sectional survey Materials and Methods: Ophthalmologists measured ocular pressure using Perkins applanation tonometer. Best corrected visual acuity was checked by ETDRS chart. After dilating the pupil the fundus was examined. A sketch diagram was drawn to note glaucomatous changes in optic disc and the surrounding retina. The field of vision was tested on Bjerrum screen. Gonioscopy was performed to determine type of glaucoma. Persons and their relatives were interviewed to find out risk factors and glaucoma treatment in the past. Results: Seven thousand four hundred and thirty-eight (87.3%) persons were examined. The age-sex standardized prevalence of glaucoma was 3.68% (95% CI 3.27 to 4.07). Gender variation of glaucoma was not significant. [OR = 1.13 (CI 95% 0.88 to 1.44)] Glaucoma varied significantly by age groups. (χ2 = 48.2, degree of freedom = 3 P < 0.001) Among those patients diagnosed to suffer from glaucoma, the proportion of open angle, closed angle, secondary glaucoma, ocular hypertension and glaucoma suspects was 13.1%, 21.2%, 21.2%, 14.5% and 30% respectively. Different types of visual disabilities were associated with glaucoma. However, unilateral blindness in glaucoma was unusual. Twenty-five per cent of the glaucoma cases were detected for the first time during the survey. Conclusions: The prevalence of glaucoma was high and the angle closure type was more compared to the open angle glaucoma.
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