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Prevalence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases

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Author(s): Budimka Novaković | Jelena Jovičić | Mirjana Martinov-Cvejin | Biljana Božin | Maja Grujičić | Dušan Đurić | Neda Lakić | Vesna Mijatović-Jovanović

Journal: International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine & Public Health
ISSN 1840-4529

Volume: 3;
Issue: 3;
Start page: 220;
Date: 2011;
Original page

Keywords: Non-communicable diseases | chronic diseases | risk factors | BMI | waist cifcumference | glycemia

ABSTRACT
Background: Number of cases of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is on the rise. Taking into accounttheir multicausal etiology, it is important to determine the prevalence of risk factors for noncommunicablediseases in different regions and countries in order to plan adequate preventive actions.Aims and objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of risk factors for NCDssuch as overweight and obesity, high risk waist circumference, hyperglycemia and high blood pressureamong individuals, aged 45 and older, living in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, according totheir sex, age, level of education.Methods/Study design: The study included gathering of the following data: general and demographicdata, anthropometric measurements (body height [cm], body mass [kg], waist circumference [cm]) andcalculated body mass index (BMI) [kg/m2], values of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure[mmHg] and fasting glycemia [mmol/l]. General and demographic data were gathered using aquestionnaire and an interview and included sex, age, educational attainment and type of settlement.Anthropometric characteristics were measured and interpreted in accordance with WHO Guidelines. Alogistic model was used to determine the ODDS ratio for each risk factor and it was used for classificationof risk factors for hyperglycemia and NCD development.Data was collected from 77787 inhabitants of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (APV) of bothsexes, aged 45 years and older.Results/Findings: Calculating of BMI showed that 74.3% of the APV population was overweight orobese, and that 33.3% was obese. More men were overweight and more women were obese. The highestprevalence of overweight was among women and men older than 60 years. Individuals with college oruniversity degree were less likely to be obese than individuals with no elementary education or partialelementary education. The obtained results showed that close to 80% of the examined population of APVojvodina had a desirable waist circumference (WC). High-risk and stage II WC were more frequent inwomen, whereas stage I WC was more frequent in men. A desirable waist circumference was morefrequent among college and university graduates compared to those with lower levels of education. Theprevalence of individuals with normal blood pressure (BP) according to the Helsinki Commissionrecommendations was 46.5%. Using JNC 7 criteria, 65.6% of the APV population was found to beaffected by hypertension. Hyperglycemia was more frequent among women and diabetes mellitus wasmore frequent among men. The number of individuals with fasting hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitusincreased with age and among the eldest there were 37.1% of individuals with fasting hyperglycemia, and15.2% with diabetes. Fasting hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus were more frequent in individualswithout or with partial elementary school, consistent with the findings from USA.Conclusion: Risk factors for NCDs are more often present among inhabitants of APV with lowereducation levels. Older age resulted in multiple risk factors presence. Almost half of the population of APVojvodina older than 45 years (46%) had three or four diet-related risk factors for NCDs. Actions shouldbe taken in APV in order to reduce the future social and economic burden of NCDs in AP Vojvodina.
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