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Primary endemic Cryptococcosis gattii by molecular type VGII in the state of Pará, Brazil

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Author(s): Wallace Raimundo A dos Santos | Wieland Meyer | Bodo Wanke | Solange PS Evangelista Costa | Luciana Trilles | Jose Luiz M Nascimento | Rita Medeiros | Bernardina Pernarrieta Morales | Claudia de Carvalho Falci Bezerra | Regina Célia Lima de Macêdo | Silvana O Ferreira | Gláucia Gonçalves Barbosa | Mauricio A Perez | Marília Martins Nishikawa | Márcia dos Santos Lazéra

Journal: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz.
ISSN 0074-0276

Volume: 103;
Issue: 8;
Start page: 813;
Date: 2008;
Original page

Keywords: Cryptococcus gattii | VGII genotype | endemic mycosis | children | state of Pará

ABSTRACT
In order to study the infectious agents causing human disseminated cryptococcosis in the state of Pará, North Brazil, 56 isolates of Cryptococcusspp. (54 isolated from cerebral spinal fluid and two from blood cultures) from 43 cases diagnosed between 2003-2007 were analysed. The species were determined through morphological and physiological tests and genotypes were determined by URA5-RFLP and PCR-fingerprinting (wild-type phage M13). The following species and genotypes were identified: Cryptococcus neoformans VNI (28/56, 50%), Cryptococcus gattii VGII (25/56, 44.64%) and C. gattii VGI (3/56, 5.26%). The genotype VNI occurred in 12 out of 14 HIV-positive adults, whereas the genotype VGII occurred in 11 out of 21 HIV-negative adults (p < 0.02, OR = 6.6 IC95% 0.98-56.0). All patients less than 12 years old were HIV negative and six cases were caused by the VGII genotype, one by the VGI and one by VNI. Therefore, endemic primary mycosis in HIV-negative individuals, including an unexpectedly high number of children, caused by the VGII genotype deserves further study and suggests the need for surveillance on cryptococcal infection in the state of Pará, Eastern Amazon.
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