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Prophylactic use of antibiotic-loaded bone cement in primary total knee arthroplasty: Justified or not?

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Author(s): Srivastav Amit | Nadkarni Biren | Srivastav Shekhar | Mittal Vivek | Agarwal Shekhar

Journal: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
ISSN 0019-5413

Volume: 43;
Issue: 3;
Start page: 259;
Date: 2009;
Original page

Keywords: Antibiotic-loaded bone cement | prophylaxis | total knee arthroplasty

ABSTRACT
Background: The routine use of antibiotic-loaded bone cement (ABLC) during primary or uninfected revision arthroplasty remains controversial. Many studies quote the total joint arthroplasty (TJA) infection rate to be less than 1%. Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has a higher infection rate than total hip arthroplasty (THA). Based on both animal and human studies in the past, ABLC has been found effective in reducing the risk of infection in primary TJA. We are presenting retrospective analysis of results in terms of infection rate in 659 TKA performed by a single surgeon under similar conditions during 2004-2007 using CMW1 (Depuy, Leeds, UK) with premixed 1 g of gentamicin. Patients and Methods: We did primary TKA in 659 knees of 379 patients during 2004-2007 using CMW1 (Depuy, Leeds, UK) cement containing 1 g of gentamicin in 40 g of cement in a premixed form. Standard OT conditions were maintained using laminar air flow, isolation suits for the operating team, pulse lavage and disposable drapes in each patients. Midvastus approach was used in all the patients to expose the knee joint. A systemic antibiotic (third-generation cephalosporin and aminoglycoside) was used preoperatively and 48 h postoperatively. We observed the patients in terms of infection in the high-risk and low-risk group till the recent follow-up with a mean of 20.6 months (9-38 months). Results: We had deep infection in six knees in six patients and all of them required two-stage revision surgery later in the high-risk group. Infection occurred at a mean of 20.5 months after surgery earliest at 9 months and latest at 36 months after surgery. The infection rate in our study was 0.91% which is comparatively less than the reported incidence of 1-2% in reported studies. Conclusion: We conclude that the use of antibiotic loaded bone cement is one of the effective means in preventing infection in primary TJA.
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