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Protonowa spektroskopia rezonansu magnetycznego w zaburzeniach afektywnych

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Author(s): Wojciech Rachel | Marcin Siwek | Dominika Dudek | Andrzej Zięba | Agnieszka Werewka-Maczuga | Izabela Herman-Sucharska | Andrzej Urbanik

Journal: Neuropsychiatria i Neuropsychologia
ISSN 1896-6764

Volume: 3;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 29;
Date: 2008;
Original page

Keywords: magnetic resonance proton spectroscopy (HMRS) | affective disorder

ABSTRACT
Magnetic Resonance Proton Spectroscopy (HMRS) isa noninvasive method that allows: the observation ofdynamic metabolic fluctuations in central nervoussystem, differentiation of morphological lesions andmonitoring of therapy of some neurological diseases.HMRS may be potentially useful in the research ofpathological mechanisms underlying the unipolar (UD)and bipolar affective disorder (BD). However no specificpatterns of metabolic abnormalities in UD or BD canbe described according to current evidence from HMRSstudies. The main reasons are: small size of groups andmethodological variety of previous studies. The mostoften described observation in HMRS studies on UDpatients is the elevation of choline level in basal ganglia,prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, gyrus cinguli, correlatedwith severity of depression. The alterations of cholinelevel in basal ganglia and prefrontal cortex in BD werealso described but the data are contradictory. Nosignificant decrease of N-acetylaspartate level wasdetected in UD or BD. Those data suggest the alteredneuronal cell membrane permeability withoutdegenerative processes in affective disorders. OtherHMRS studies revealed the lower glutamine, glutamate,GABA and myoinositol levels in frontal and prefrontalcortex in UD patients compared with BD patients. Thedecrease of GABA level and increase of glutamate andglutamine levels in occipital cortex of UD and BDpatients was reveald in few studies. These abnormalitiesmay reflect the imbalance between the excitatory andinhibitory amino-acid neurotransmitter systems inaffective disorders. The normalization of levels of mostdescribed above metabolites after the successful therapywith antidepressants, mood stabilizers or electroconvulsivetherapy was also described.
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