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Purified Wheat Gliadin Proteins as Immunoglobulin E Binding Factors in Wheat Mediated Allergies

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Author(s): Jacek Waga | Krystyna Obtułowicz | Jerzy Zientarski | Ewa Czarnobilska | Andrzej Skoczowski

Journal: American Journal of Plant Sciences
ISSN 2158-2742

Volume: 02;
Issue: 03;
Start page: 476;
Date: 2011;
Original page

Keywords: Allergies | Gliadins | Immunoreactivity | Preparative A-PAGE | Wheat

ABSTRACT
Some wheat gliadin proteins are strong allergens that may cause various symptoms of food allergies and baker’s asthma. The most immunoreactive ω-5 gliadin fractions are the main allergens in wheat dependent exercise induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). While the allergenicity of ω-5 is quite well understood, knowledge about α, β, γ and ω-1.2 gliadins is much more scanty. This study examines allergenic properties of other fractions as compared to ω-5. Gliadins were extracted from flour of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar Ostka strzelecka. Purified samples representing proteins belonging to α, β, γ, ω-1.2 and ω-5 classes were isolated using preparative gel electrophoresis. Immuno-reactivity and allergenic properties of these proteins were analyzed by ELISA using sera from allergic patients with elevated sIgE (> 2KU/L), and by skin prick test (SPT). ELISA showed that ω-5 and ω-1.2 differed considerabely from α-, β- and γ-gliadins in respect of immunoreactivity. Responses of both ω-gliadins were almost twice as high as for other fractions. Significant differences were also observed among individual ω-gliadin fractions as evidenced by ANOVA. SPT showed that patient with symptoms of baker’s asthma and WDEIA had a positive results to all gliadins tested. Another patient with baker’s asthma (but not WDEIA) reacted positively only to ω-5 gliadins. In two patients with skin allergy SPT were negative with all analyzed proteins. Results show ω-1.2 gliadins to be almost as immunorective as ω-5. The α-, β- and γ-gliadins also recognize specific IgE antibodies, but their binding capacity is only about half that of ω-fractions. This kind of immunoreactivity could still be important since a cumulative effect of individual fractions may intensify disease symptoms in allergic patients.
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