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RAAS and adrenergic genes in heart failure: Function, predisposition and survival implications

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Author(s): Alberto J Alves | Nir Eynon | José Oliveira | Ehud Goldhammer

Journal: World Journal of Cardiology
ISSN 1949-8462

Volume: 2;
Issue: 7;
Start page: 187;
Date: 2010;
Original page

Keywords: Cardiac failure | Polymorphisms | Susceptibility | Mortality

ABSTRACT
It is well appreciated that several neurohormones and signaling cascades are activated that promote long-term deterioration of cardiac function and structure. Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and the adrenergic system is closely related to heart failure. Common gene variants that encode neurohormonal, adrenergic and intracellular proteins have been demonstrated to modulate the course and consequences of heart failure. However, the literature is replete with conflicting results and it remains uncertain as to whether particular gene variants predispose heart failure. Therefore, the main purpose of this review was to discuss the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are located in genes encoding elements of the RAAS and the adrenergic system on the predisposition to and survival from heart failure. Most studies indicate that common SNPs encoding elements of the RAAS and the adrenergic system do not predispose individuals to heart failure. Conversely, it has been demonstrated that ARB1 Arg389Gly, GRK5 Gln41Leu, ACE I/D, CYP11B2 C-344T and AGTR1 A+1166C modulate pharmacological responses and have a considerable impact on cardiac-related survival. It should not be expected, however, that a single polymorphism determines survival, given that multiple gene products and environmental factors contribute to the pathogenesis of heart failure. Therefore, future studies should consider the interaction effects of multiple genes in populations that are as homogeneous as possible with respect to environmental characteristics.
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