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Radiocontrast - induced nephropathy

Author(s): Đurđević-Mirković Tatjana | Čurić Slobodan | Vodopivec Slavenka | Mitić Igor | Božić Dušan 1 | Petrović Lada | Ilić Tatjana

Journal: Medicinski pregled
ISSN 0025-8105

Volume: 55;
Issue: 7-8;
Start page: 333;
Date: 2002;
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Keywords: kidney failure + etiology + epidemiology + mortality + prevention and control | risk factors | contrast media + adverse effects

Introduction Hospital-acquired acute renal failure increased in the last years from about 5 to 6.4%, while mortality remained high and according to newest investigations it is about 60% on average. Radiocontrast-induced nephropathy is the third cause of death in hospital-acquired acute renal failure. Risk factors for radiocontrast-induced nephropathy Risk factors for radiocontrast-induced nephropathy include: the existing kidney disease diabetes, dehydratation, multiple myeloma, older age and earlier kidney damage by contrast substances. Course of radiocontrast-induced nephropathy The clinical course of radiocontrast-induced nephropathy may manifest from asymptomatic picture to development of oliguric form of acute renal failure. Prevention and treatment modalities of radiocontrast-induced nephropathy Modalities of prevention and treatment of radiocontrast-induced nephropathy are as follows: adequate hydration of patients, appropriate application of diuretics, calcium channel blockers nonionizing radiocontrast and preventive haemodialysis. Experimental studies in prevention and treatment of radiocontrast-induced nephropathy Experimental studies indicate application of atrial natriuretic peptide, endothelin, prostaglandin. Case review Two patients treated at the Clinic for Nephrology and Clinical Immunology in Novi Sad, presented with radiocontrast-induced nephropathy. In one patient it appeared after panaortography and in the second after computerized tomography of the abdomen. In both cases aggravation occurred due to already existing renal failure caused by radiocontrast substances. Conclusion The problem is particularly important because there is a large number of patients in whom there is a risk of radiocontrast-induced nephropathy and it is necessary to carry out adequate prophylaxis and accurate assessment of kidney function before application of radiocontrast substances.
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