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Rahvaluule mõiste kujunemine Eestis

Author(s): Tiiu Jaago

Journal: Mäetagused. Hüperajakiri
ISSN 1406-992X

Volume: 9;
Date: 1999;
Original page

The 1990s was a tumultuous decade in the Estonian society - the crisis in Estonian folkloristic studies was reflected in the following phenomena: theory lagged behind practice, the research priorities hitherto (Kalevala-song, folklore's poetics) were substituted for newer ones (folk religion, heritage group folklore), modern folklore arose as equal next to the folklore of the past. Among other things the new situation demanded the modernisation of the definition of folklore. Besides folkloristic practice the definition is also shaped by local scientific tradition (vertical cultural axis) and currently prevalent international cultural contacts (horizontal cultural axis).In the 19th century, during the period of beginning and early development Estonian folklore has been influenced mainly by folklore in German language, at the turn of the century it was also influenced by Finnish folklore - the dialogue with Finland has lasted till now; during the Soviet period after WW2 prevailed research trends characteristic to Russian folklore, by 1990s it had cast aside Russian folkloristic trends paving the way for introducing European and, more significantly, American folkloristic trends and emerging them into Estonian folklore.In Estonia the science of folklore can be considered as a sub-discipline of philology and all the periods mentioned above are characterised by the prevalence of text-centred research trends and linguistic research methods in folklore. Parallelly, the Estonian folklore has been interested in the historical aspect of oral traditions. 1930s and 1990s are characterised by a growing concern towards historical-ethnological research. The emergence of modern folklore into Estonian folklore has shifted the research preference from text to presentation. Reforms in science demanded also the modernisation of the definition of folklore.For the introductory course in folklore science at the University of Tartu I have formulated the notion as following: «Folk poetry or folklore is a syncretical intellectual heritage of a culturally homogeneous group. It holds knowledge, experience and aesthetics. Folklore is developed, preserved and spread via communication process and it is characterised by constant change.
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