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Reconstructive procedures for segmental resection of bone in giant cell tumors around the knee

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Author(s): Aggarwal Aditya | Jain Anil | Kumar Sudhir | Dhammi Ish | Prashad Bhagwat

Journal: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
ISSN 0019-5413

Volume: 41;
Issue: 2;
Start page: 129;
Date: 2007;
Original page

Keywords: Enbloc resection | giant cell tumor | reconstruction of knee

ABSTRACT
Background: Segmental resection of bone in Giant Cell Tumor (GCT) around the knee, in indicated cases, leaves a gap which requires a complex reconstructive procedure. The present study analyzes various reconstructive procedures in terms of morbidity and various complications encountered. Materials and Methods: Thirteen cases (M-six and F-seven; lower end femur-six and upper end tibia -seven) of GCT around the knee, radiologically either Campanacci Grade II, Grade II with pathological fracture or Grade III were included. Mean age was 25.6 years (range 19-30 years). Resection arthrodesis with telescoping (shortening) over intramedullary nail ( n=5), resection arthrodesis with an intercalary allograft threaded over a long intramedullary nail ( n=3) and resection arthrodesis with intercalary fibular autograft and simultaneous limb lengthening ( n=5) were the procedure performed. Results: Shortening was the major problem following resection arthrodesis with telescoping (shortening) over intramedullary nail. Only two patients agreed for subsequent limb lengthening. The rest continued to walk with shortening. Infection was the major problem in all cases of resection arthrodesis with an intercalary allograft threaded over a long intramedullary nail and required multiple drainage procedures. Fusion was achieved after two years in two patients. In the third patient the allograft sequestrated. The patient underwent sequestrectomy, telescoping of fragments and ilizarov fixator application with subsequent limb lengthening. The patient was finally given an ischial weight relieving orthosis, 54 months after the index procedure. After resection arthrodesis with intercalary autograft and simultaneous lengthening the resultant gap (~15cm) was partially bridged by intercalary nonvascularized dual fibular strut graft (6-7cm) and additional corticocancellous bone graft from ipsilateral patella. Simultaneous limb lengthening with a distal tibial corticotomy was performed on an ilizarov fixator. The complications were superficial infection ( n=5), stress fracture of fibula ( n=2). The stress fracture fibula required DCP fixation and bone grafting. The usual time taken for union and limb length equalization was approximately one year. Conclusion: Resection arthrodesis with intercalary dual fibular autograft and cortico-cancellous bone grafting with simultaneous limb lengthening achieved limb length equalization with relatively short morbidity.
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